Statistical summary: Air transportation occurrences in 2018

Table of contents

This document is a summary of selected 2018 air transportation safety data.

The Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB) gathers and uses this data during the course of its investigations to analyze safety deficiencies and identify risks in the Canadian transportation system.

It should be noted that certain characteristics of the data constrain statistical analysis and identification of emerging trends. These include the small totals of accidents and incidents, the large variability in the data from year to year, and changes to regulations and definitions. The reader is cautioned to keep these limitations in mind when viewing this summary to avoid drawing conclusions that cannot be supported by statistical analysis.

The 2018 data were collected according to the reporting requirements described in the Transportation Safety Board Regulations in force during that calendar year.

The statistics presented here reflect the TSB ASIS database at 18 February 2019. Since the occurrence data are constantly being updated in the live database, the statistics may change slightly over time.

Also, as many occurrences are not formally investigated, information recorded on some occurrences may not have been verified.

Overview of accidents and fatalities

Accident counts

Air transportation safety occurrences are reportable to the TSB if they occur in Canada or if they involve Canadian-registered aircraft and meet the criteria laid out in the Transportation Safety Board of Canada Regulations.Footnote 1 In 2018, a total of 201 air transportation accidents were reported to the TSB (Table 1 and Figure 1). This number is lower than the previous year's total of 240 accidents, and 25% less than the average of 267 reported in the 10 years from 2008 to 2017. Most (180) of the accidents in 2018 took place in Canada and involved Canadian-registered aircraft. Eleven accidents in Canada involved foreign-registered aircraft, and 11 more accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft took place outside Canada.

Figure 1. Reportable accidents, 2008 to 2018
Reportable accidents, 2008 to 2018
Figure 1. Data table
Reportable accidents, 2008 to 2018
Year Reportable accidents
2008 294
2009 298
2010 288
2011 257
2012 291
2013 276
2014 249
2015 251
2016 230
2017 240
2018 201

Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights (Table 2), were involved in 173 accidents reported in 2018. This is below the 2017 count of 208 accidents, and 25% below the average of 230 accidents for the prior 10 years. If 18 accidents involving ultralights are included in the count, there were 191 accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft in 2018.

Aircraft type

Fixed-wing, powered aeroplanes (other than ultralights) were involved in 153 accidents in 2018, and 143 of those involved Canadian-registered aeroplanes (75% of 191 accidents). Canadian-registered helicopters were involved in 26 accidents (14%), Canadian-registered ultralights were involved in 18 accidents (9%), and other types of aircraft in 4 accidents (2%). From 2008 to 2017, the proportion of accidents involving each of these 4 types of aircraft has remained fairly constant; aeroplanes have been involved in roughly 75% of reportable accidents each year, helicopters in about 12% of accidents, ultralights in about 10%, and other aircraft in less than 5% of accidents each year.

Operator type

Commercial operators were involved in 66 accidents during 2018, which is fewer than the 97 accidents involving this operator type in 2017, and 30% fewer than the average of 94 accidents per year over the previous 10 years. Commercially-operated Canadian-registered aeroplanes were involved in 46 accidents in 2018, and 8 of those involved operations under Canadian Aviation Regulations (CAR) subpart 705, which certificates the operation of airliners. One of the 8 airliner accidents in 2018 was formally investigated by the TSB. Severe turbulence encounters resulted in 2 accident reports in 2018, while 2 other accidents involved injuries to cabin crew, 2 involved low-speed collisions on the ground, 1 involved engine power loss, and 1 involved a hard landing. This is fewer than the 9 accidents involving Canadian-registered airliners in 2017, but above the average of 5.4 per year recorded from 2008 to 2017.

Also in 2018, air taxi (CAR 703) accidents numbered 23, with 18 involving aeroplanes and 5 involving helicopters. These 23 air taxi accidents are fewer than the previous year's count of 28, and match 2015 for the fewest air taxi accidents since the inception of the TSB in 1990.

There were 13 accidents involving flight training units (CAR 406) in 2018, down from a peak of 32 in 2017, and slightly more than half (57%) the average number per year (23) from 2008 to 2017.

Figure 2. Number of accidents by operator type (Canadian-registered aircraft)
Number of accidents by operator type (Canadian-registered aircraft)
Figure 2. Data table
Number of accidents by operator type (Canadian-registered aircraft)
Canadian-registered aircraft by operator and aircraft type 2008 to 2017 average 2018
Other aircraft types  8 4
Helicopter  33 26
Privately operated aeroplane  119 96
State operated aeroplane  2 2
Flight training units 20 12
Aerial work aeroplane  12 6
Air taxi aeroplane  23 18
Commuter aeroplane  4 1
Airliner aeroplane  5 8

Overall, 134 accidents involved private operations, compared to 142 in the preceding year. This is 19% below the average of 165 accidents per year observed during the period 2008 to 2017. Of the 134 total accidents in the private operations category, 96 involved Canadian-registered aeroplanes, and 6 of these were operating under CAR 604 with a private operator registration document (PORD).

Recreational operators are responsible for a significant amount of flying activity in Canada and abroad, and are involved in a large number of accidents each year. In 2018, 122 accidents involved recreational operators. This figure is 9% below the recreational operator accident count from the previous year, and 24% below the average (160) for the period from 2008 to 2017.

In addition to commercial and private operations, state-operated aircraft accounted for 2 accidents in 2018. Both involved aircraft operated by provincial governments: one during fire-fighting operations and the other in a training accident.

Province or territory

Ontario was the province with the largest number of reported accidents (53) in 2018, as was the case in 2017 with 62 (Table 7). Ontario has also averaged more accidents per year (67) from 2008 to 2017 than any other province or territory. While Quebec has historically had the second-largest accident count—averaging 58 per year from 2008 to 2017—in 2018, British Columbia (36) and Alberta (32) were the site of more accidents than Quebec (31). In addition there was 1 accident in North Atlantic airspace under Canadian control, and 11 accidents outside Canada reportable under TSB regulations.

The number of accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft by province or territory is shown in Figure 3. There were 44 accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft reported in Ontario, which is 21% below the average number (56) for the years 2008 to 2017. Quebec had the largest drop in accidents reported (28) relative to its 10-year average (49) than the other provinces or territories.

Figure 3. Number of accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, by province or territory, 2008 to 2018
Number of accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, by province, 2008 to 2018
Figure 3. Data table
Number of accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, by province or territory, 2008 to 2018
Province 2008 to 2017 average 2018
B.C.  39 30
ALBERTA 27 27
SASKATCHEWAN 14 13
MANITOBA 16 7
ONTARIO 56 44
QUEBEC 49 28
ATLANTIC 11 4
NWT/YK/NT  12 8
FOREIGN  7 12

Fatal accidents, fatalities, and serious injuries

The TSB recorded 38 fatalities in 23 fatal air transportation accidents in 2018. This is slightly more than the 34 fatalities in 22 fatal accidents in 2017, but is considerably lower than the corresponding averages of 55 fatalities in 32 fatal accidents over the 10 years from 2008 to 2017. Of 23 fatal accidents in 2018, 17 involved fixed-wing, powered aeroplanes, 4 involved helicopters, and 2 involved ultralight aircraft. All of these aircraft were registered in Canada. Four fatal accidents accounting for 10 fatalities occurred outside Canada (all in the United States).

Excluding ultralights, there were 21 fatal accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft in 2018, unchanged from the preceding year and 19% below the average for the prior 10-year period (Figure 4). However, the number of fatalities in those accidents climbed to 36, which is more than the 33 reported in 2017 but less than the average of 48 in the years from 2008 to 2017.

Figure 4. Fatalities and fatal accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, 2008 to 2018
Fatal accidents and fatalities involving Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, 2008 to 2018
Figure 4. Data table
Fatalities and fatal accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, 2008 to 2018
Year Fatalities  Fatal accidents 
2008 51 26
2009 65 29
2010 66 32
2011 61 30
2012 54 33
2013 59 32
2014 15 10
2015 40 23
2016 34 24
2017 33 21
2018 36 21

Nine of 38 fatalities involved commercial operations—5 under air taxi regulations (CAR 703) and 4 under aerial work (CAR 702). There were no fatalities involving airliner operations (CAR 705), commuter operations (CAR 704), or flight training units (CAR 406) in 2018. The remaining 29 fatalities in 2018 were linked to private operations, and all of them involved recreational operators, with 1 also involving an operator holding a PORD (CAR 604).

There were no fatal accidents in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft in 2018.

Fixed-wing, powered aeroplanes were involved in the largest number of fatalities (30) while 6 persons died in helicopter accidents and 2 fatalities involved ultralight aircraft. Of the 38 total fatalities, 20 were crew members and 18 were aircraft passengers. There were no fatalities to persons on the ground in 2018.

Overall, 28 persons incurred serious injuries in aircraft accidents in 2018. This is down slightly from 2017 when 33 persons received serious injuries, and it is 22% below the average of 36 persons with serious injuries for the years 2008 to 2017. Seventeen persons received serious injuries in accidents involving commercial operations: 4 in airliners (CAR 705), 9 in air taxi operations (CAR 703), 2 related to aerial work (CAR 702), 1 with a foreign air operator (CAR 701), and 1 with a flight training unit (CAR 406). Also in 2018, 11 persons incurred serious injuries in private operations, including 7 in recreational operations and 1 operator with a PORD (CAR 604).

Accident rates

Canadian-registered aircraft accident rate per 100 000 hours flown

An accident rate of 3.5 per 100 000 hours flown was calculated based on the 169 accidents in Canada and abroad in 2018 involving Canadian-registered aeroplanes and helicopters (excluding ultralights and other similar aircraft types), and the estimated 4 796 000 hours flown by Canadian-registered aircraft (Table 3a).Footnote 2 This rate is below the 2017 rate of 4.2 accidents per 100 000 hours flown, and the average rate of 5.2 over the previous 10 years.

Figure 5. Canadian-registered aircraft accidents per 100 000 hours flown, and Sen's estimate of slope
Canadian-registered aircraft accidents per 100 000 hours flown, and Sen's estimate of slope
Figure 5. Data table
Canadian-registered aircraft accidents per 100 000 hours flown, and Sen's estimate of slope
Year Canadian-registered aircraft accidents per 100 000 hours flown Sen's estimate of slope (-0.250) Fatal Canadian-registered aircraft accidents per 100 000 hours flown Sen's estimate of slope (-0.033)
2008 5.6 6.3 0.6 0.8
2009 6.3 6.1 0.7 0.7
2010 6.0 5.8 0.8 0.7
2011 5.3 5.6 0.7 0.7
2012 5.3 5.3 0.7 0.6
2013 5.4 5.1 0.7 0.6
2014 4.8 4.8 0.2 0.6
2015 5.1 4.6 0.5 0.5
2016 4.3 4.3 0.5 0.5
2017 4.2 4.1 0.4 0.5
2018 3.5 3.8 0.4 0.4

The accident rate for Canadian-registered aircraft has fallen from 5.6 accidents per 100 000 hours flown in 2008 to 3.5 in 2018, a reduction of 37%. Kendall's tau-b (τb) correlation coefficient is a nonparametric measure of the strength and direction of association that exists between 2 variables. Kendall's τb was calculated on the 11-year series of accident rate values by year from 2008 to 2018. There was a strong, negative correlation that indicates a downward trend in occurrence rate per 100 000 hours flown over the period (τb = −0.8074, p = 0.0006). Sen's estimate of slope, the amount of downward rate change per year, was −0.250 occurrences per 100 000 hours flown per year (Figure 5).

With 23 fatal accidents in 2018 involving Canadian-registered aircraft, the fatal accident rate was 0.4 per 100 000 hours flown. That rate is comparable to the 2017 rate of 0.4, and is below the 2008 to 2017 average of 0.6 fatal accidents per 100 000 hours flown. Although there is a downward trend to the series of fatal accident rates since 2008 (Kendall's τb = −0.5311, p = 0.0298), the slope of the trend is quite small: Sen's estimate of slope is −0.033 fatal accidents per 100 000 hours flown per year.

In 2018, 36 fatalities resulted from accidents involving Canadian-registered aeroplanes and helicopters (excluding ultralights) , yielding a rate of 0.8 fatalities per 100 000 hours flown. This rate is slightly higher than the 2017 rate of 0.7, but below the average rate of 1.1 from 2008 to 2017. Like the accident rate and fatal accident rate, the fatality rate per 100 000 hours flown has trended downward since 2008 (Kendall's τb = −0.5742, p = 0.0152). The rate of change (Sen's estimate) is −0.105 fatalities per 100 000 hours flown per year.

Accident rate per 100 000 aircraft movements in Canada

An alternate method for calculating accident rate is to compare accident count to number of aircraft movements during a year (Table 3b). There were 167 accidents in Canada involving Canadian-registered and foreign aircraft (excluding ultralights) in 2018. This is fewer than in any of the preceding 10 years, when the average number of accidents was 226. The number of aircraft movements in Canada in 2018 was estimated to be 6 286 thousand,Footnote 3 yielding a rate of 2.7 accidents per 100 000 movements, which is below the 2017 rate of 3.3 accidents per 100 000 movements, and the average rate of 3.7 over the previous 10 years. In 2018, 26 fatalities resulted from accidents involving aeroplanes and helicopters in Canada, yielding a rate of 0.4 fatalities per 100 000 movements.

Dangerous goods released

Seven accidents in 2018 involved a release of dangerous goods. While this is lower than the total of 8 accidents with dangerous goods released in 2017, it is higher than the average of about 4 per year over the previous 10 years.

Accident events and phases

For each reported accident, the TSB records 1 or more safety-significant events that occurred, and the phase of flight of each of these events. For example, if an aeroplane suffers engine power loss during takeoff (safety-significant event 1), and then returns to land and has a runway excursion during landing (safety-significant event 2), each of the 2 events and their phase of flight will be recorded for statistical purposes. Tables 11 through 14 show, by phase of flight, how many accidents occurred for each event type from 2008 to 2018. Note that if a single accident involves more than 1 event within a phase of flight, that accident is only counted once in the phase total. Therefore, the total number of accidents for each event within a phase will not sum to the total number of accidents for a phase. For example, in the takeoff phase, if an accident involves both "loss of control" and "power loss" events, the accident is counted once in each event category within the phase, but only once in the overall phase total. As well, approximately 38% of aeroplane accidents and 29% of helicopter accidents involve events in more than 1 phase of flight, so the number of accidents shown in the tables, as well as in Figures 6 and 7, sum to more than the total number of accidents.

Figures 6 and 7 show the number of aeroplane and helicopter accidents by phase of flight and event category. Over the past 11 years (2008 to 2018), the distribution of aeroplane accidents (Figure 6) shows more accidents had events during the landing phase (56% of aeroplane accidents) and takeoff phase (24%) than in other phases of flight. The events in helicopter accidents (Figure 7) occurred more often during the landing (42%), manoeuveringFootnote 4 (23%), and en route (22%) phases of flight. Note that for both aeroplanes and helicopters, although the landing phase is associated with the largest number of accidents, the en route, takeoff, and maneuvering phases are associated with larger numbers of fatal accidents.

Figure 6. Aeroplane accidents and fatal accidents with events in specified phases of flight, 2008 to 2018
Aeroplane accidents and fatal accidents with events in specified phases of flight, 2008 to 2018
Figure 6. Data table
Aeroplane accidents and fatal accidents by phase of flight, 2008 to 2018
Phase of flight All accidents  Fatal accidents 
Standing/Taxiing  192 7
Take-off  506 54
En route  335 76
Manoeuvering  112 33
Approach  281 50
Landing  1204 33
Post-impact  283 85
Figure 7. Helicopter accidents and fatal accidents with events in specified phases of flight, 2008 to 2018
Helicopter accidents and fatal accidents with events in specified phases of flight, 2008 to 2018
Figure 7. Data table
Helicopter accidents and fatal accidents by phase of flight, 2008 to 2018
Phase of flight All accidents  Fatal accidents 
Standing/Taxiing  28 0
Take-off  63 7
En route  78 24
Manoeuvering  81 19
Approach  43 6
Landing  150 9
Post-impact  45 11

Overview of incidents

Incident counts

There were 863 incidents reported in accordance with the TSB Regulations during 2018 (Table 9). This represents a drop from a peak of 939 reportable incidents in 2017, but remains above the average of 781 incidents per year between 2008 and 2017. However, the apparent increase in incidents over the past few years is partly explained by regulations that became effective 1 July 2014. Under those reporting requirements, aviation incidents to be reported now include those involving aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff weight greater than 2250 kg (formerly 5700 kg) and aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) Part VII.

Overall, reported incidents gradually decreased in number until about 2013, but over the past 5 years that number has increased back to approximately the same level as in 2008. The same general pattern (a few years of decreasing counts, followed by several years of increase) is evident since 2008 in the 2 most common incident categories: declared emergency, which accounted for 39% of reported incidents in 2018, and risk of collision/loss of separation, which made up 16% of reported incidents (Figure 8). Engine failure incidents made up 11% of incidents, while smoke/fire incidents were 12% of all incidents in 2018. Crew were reported unable to perform their duties 57 times, or in 7% of all reportable incidents in the year. The latter category is a decrease from last year's peak of 78 reported incidents.

Figure 8. Reportable incidents by type, 2018
Reportable incidents by type, 2018
Figure 8. Data table
Percentage of reportable incidents by type
Reportable incident type Number  Percentage 
Declared emergency  340 39
Risk of collision/Loss of separation  141 16
Engine failure  91 11
Smoke/Fire  99 12
Collision  26 3
Other incident type  166 19

The majority of incidents in 2018 (611) occurred in Canada and involved Canadian-registered aircraft. However, 161 incidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft occurred outside Canada in 2018, a number that has increased sharply since 2015 to a peak of 181 in 2017, and remained high in 2018 compared to an average of 76 per year during the previous 10 years. Specifically, declared emergency and risk of collision/loss of separation were the 2 most common incident types involving Canadian-registered aircraft outside Canada. Both of these incident types, while not showing a monotonic trend over the 11-year period of this report, have increased in frequency over the past 5 years. The TSB is working to further analyze the rise in reported incidents, and in particular, the apparent increase in reportable incidents occurring outside Canada.

Commercial operations are the source of 95% of the incidents reported to the TSB, and ⅔ of these involve Canadian-registered airliners operating under CAR subpart 705. In 2018 there were 547 incidents reported involving Canadian-registered airliners, which is down 11% from a peak of 614 in 2017 but still above the average of 488 incidents per year reported from 2008 to 2017. Foreign air operators (CAR 701) were involved in 91 incidents, or about 11% of commercial incidents. This is down by more than half from the 190 incidents reported in 2008, but above last year's count of 80.

Data tables

Table 1. Reportable aviation occurrences 2008-2018
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Number of reportable accidents 294 298 288 257 291 276 249 251 230 240 201
Accidents in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 274 272 273 241 267 262 238 232 214 222 180
Accidents outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 7 11 1 6 8 4 4 10 8 11 11
Accidents in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 15 15 14 10 17 10 7 9 8 7 11
Number of accidents by operator type1 294 298 288 257 291 276 249 251 230 240 201
Commercial 124 115 109 99 92 84 82 74 63 97 66
Airliner (CAR 705) 6 2 6 6 5 7 4 9 1 9 8
Commuter (CAR 704) 6 6 7 6 5 3 2 3 3 5 1
Air taxi (CAR 703) 64 43 45 37 33 33 34 23 26 28 23
Aerial work (CAR 702) 19 21 29 27 26 21 17 18 16 18 17
Foreign air operator (CAR 701) 1 1 1 1 2 2 0 0 0 4 3
Flight training units (CAR 406) 26 37 19 19 19 17 25 20 17 32 13
Other commercial 3 5 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 1
Private 161 177 165 149 185 179 159 172 164 142 134
Private operators (CAR 604) 2 4 2 5 3 4 3 0 5 1 7
Recreational 157 173 162 142 181 175 156 165 152 134 122
Other private 2 0 1 3 1 0 0 7 8 7 7
State 3 3 5 2 3 6 4 1 0 0 2
Other/Unknown 7 6 10 8 12 9 5 5 3 2 0
Number of accidents by aircraft type1 294 298 288 257 291 276 249 251 230 240 201
Aeroplane 208 224 220 201 205 212 176 197 174 178 153
Helicopter 44 33 31 36 41 27 34 33 28 27 26
Ultralight 29 35 30 17 36 23 32 17 22 25 18
Other2 13 7 7 3 9 15 8 7 6 10 4
Number of aircraft involved in accidents1,3 300 304 290 261 296 280 253 259 234 247 207
Aeroplanes 214 229 222 204 209 215 179 202 178 184 159
Helicopters 44 33 31 36 42 27 34 33 28 27 26
Ultralights 29 35 30 17 36 23 32 17 22 25 18
Other2 13 7 7 4 9 15 8 7 6 11 4
Number of fatal accidents by aircraft type1 38 35 37 35 42 38 14 29 29 22 23
Aeroplane 16 22 29 23 25 25 12 20 22 18 17
Helicopter 9 8 3 8 7 6 0 5 2 2 4
Ultralight 12 4 3 3 8 4 2 4 4 1 2
Other2 1 1 2 1 2 4 0 0 1 1 0
Reportable accident fatalities 64 72 72 66 63 65 21 47 45 34 38
Reportable accident serious injuries 49 45 35 49 48 22 35 31 18 33 28
Accidents in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 15 15 14 10 17 10 7 9 8 7 11
Fatal accidents 0 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 1 0 0
Fatalities 0 2 2 2 1 2 4 4 7 0 0
Serious Injuries 5 3 1 1 4 0 1 0 0 0 4
Occurrences with a dangerous good release 1 3 1 0 1 4 4 6 7 8 7
Number of reportable incidents4 898 789 814 677 645 689 741 789 833 939 863
Incidents in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 656 593 587 522 482 541 599 653 620 685 611
Incidents outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 68 64 78 54 48 38 55 58 117 181 161
Incidents in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 211 155 188 127 138 129 102 106 117 106 115
Number of reportable incidents by category4 898 789 814 677 645 689 741 789 833 939 863
Risk of collision / Loss of separation 176 153 206 120 102 115 94 111 139 172 141
Declared emergency 323 313 310 275 266 294 313 333 311 348 340
Engine failure 121 107 87 95 92 83 104 110 110 98 91
Smoke / Fire 108 97 80 88 71 67 89 87 85 100 99
Collision 9 10 4 7 5 15 16 8 18 24 26
Other 161 109 127 92 109 115 125 140 170 197 166

Data extracted 18 February 2019.

1 Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each type, but only once in the total.

2 Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, airships, hang gliders, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and similar aircraft types.

3 "Number of aircraft involved in accidents" are aircraft counts, all other data are accident counts.

4 New TSB regulations came into effect on 1 July 2014. Under new reporting requirements aviation incidents include: a) aircraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2 250 kg (formerly 5 700 kg); b) aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under CARs Part VII.

Table 2. Occurrences involving Canadian-registered aircraft 2008-2018
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Number of accidents by aircraft and operator type1,2 252 250 244 230 239 243 212 227 200 208 173
Aeroplane accidents 197 211 209 192 191 204 170 190 167 171 143
Commercial 85 89 77 71 62 58 55 51 42 71 46
Airliner (CAR 705) 6 2 6 5 5 7 4 9 1 9 8
Commuter (CAR 704) 6 5 6 4 5 3 1 3 3 5 1
Air taxi (CAR 703) 41 35 29 26 19 19 19 12 16 18 18
Aerial work (CAR 702) 12 11 18 14 14 12 8 10 7 12 6
Flight training units (CAR 406) 18 32 16 19 18 16 23 16 16 27 12
Other commercial 3 4 2 3 1 1 0 1 0 0 1
Private 104 121 122 113 122 139 111 138 122 101 96
Private operators (CAR 604) 2 2 2 2 0 3 1 0 5 1 6
Recreational 102 119 119 110 121 136 110 132 114 97 89
Other private 0 0 1 2 1 0 0 6 4 3 2
State 3 1 3 2 1 2 3 1 0 0 2
Other/Unknown 5 3 8 6 6 7 2 1 3 0 0
Helicopter accidents 42 32 29 35 41 27 34 32 27 27 26
Commercial 33 22 27 26 28 22 26 23 18 22 17
Private 9 10 2 9 10 4 7 9 9 5 9
State 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other aircraft accidents3 13 7 6 3 7 13 8 7 6 10 4
Number of fatal accidents by aircraft and operator type1,2 26 29 32 30 33 32 10 23 24 21 21
Aeroplane accidents 16 21 28 21 25 24 10 18 21 18 17
Commercial 3 7 12 11 6 8 2 6 3 7 4
Airliner (CAR 705) 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Commuter (CAR 704) 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Air taxi (CAR 703) 3 6 7 6 3 5 1 3 1 1 2
Aerial work (CAR 702) 0 0 4 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2
Flight training units (CAR 406) 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 3 0
Other commercial 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Private 13 13 15 10 17 14 8 13 18 11 13
Private operators (CAR 604) 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1
Recreational 11 13 15 10 17 13 8 13 16 10 13
Other private 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
State 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 0 1 1 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0
Helicopter accidents 9 7 3 8 7 6 0 5 2 2 4
Commercial 6 5 3 6 5 6 0 4 1 2 1
Private 3 2 0 2 1 0 0 1 1 0 3
State 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other aircraft accidents3 1 1 1 1 1 3 0 0 1 1 0
Accident fatalities2 51 65 66 61 54 59 15 40 34 33 36
Accident serious injuries2 39 34 30 43 38 19 28 28 17 27 21
Number of incidents by category2,4 724 657 665 576 530 579 654 711 737 866 772
Risk of collision/Loss of separation 149 137 179 106 92 105 84 101 127 159 134
Declared emergency 234 237 238 224 200 231 277 290 263 316 298
Engine failure 98 94 67 87 77 70 94 102 102 88 79
Smoke/Fire 90 84 69 67 59 55 76 79 75 95 85
Collision 8 8 3 7 4 14 15 7 16 23 21
Other 145 97 109 85 98 104 108 132 154 185 155
Number of accidents involving ultralight aircraft 29 34 30 17 36 23 31 16 22 25 18
Fatal accidents 12 4 3 3 8 4 2 3 4 1 2
Fatalities 13 5 4 3 8 4 2 3 4 1 2
Serious injuries 5 8 4 5 6 3 6 3 1 6 3

Data extracted 18 February 2019.

1 Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each type, but only once in the total.

2 Excludes ultralight aircraft

3 Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, airships, hang gliders, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and similar aircraft types.

4 New TSB regulations came into effect on 1 July 2014. Under new reporting requirements aviation incidents include: a) aircraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2 250 kg (formerly 5 700 kg); b) aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under CARs Part VII.

Table 3a. Accident rates involving Canadian-registered aircraft (per hours flown, excluding ultralights and other similar aircraft types)1 2008-2018
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Accidents 239 243 238 227 232 231 204 222 194 198 169
Fatal accidents 25 28 31 29 32 30 10 23 23 20 21
Fatalities 50 64 65 59 53 57 15 40 33 32 36
Hours flown2 (thousands) 4243 3870 3992 4283 4392 4294 4271 4321 4479 4716 4796
Accidents per 100,000 hours 5.6 6.3 6 5.3 5.3 5.4 4.8 5.1 4.3 4.2 3.5
Fatal accidents per 100,000 hours 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4
Fatalities per 100,000 hours 1.2 1.7 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.3 0.4 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.8

Data extracted 18 February 2019.

1 Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, airships, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.

2 Source: Transport Canada (2014 to 2018 hours flown are estimated).

Table 3b. Aircraft accident rates in Canada (per movements, excluding ultralights and other similar aircraft types)1 2008-2018
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Accidents 245 247 250 230 238 235 206 220 196 195 167
Fatal accidents 21 29 32 30 31 28 11 21 23 18 17
Fatalities 43 65 66 60 52 52 17 39 37 30 26
Aircraft movements2 (thousands) 6,711 6,380 6,262 6,112 6,097 5,959 5,947 5,946 5,951 5,951 6,286
Accidents per 100,000 aircraft movements 3.7 3.9 4.0 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.5 3.7 3.3 3.3 2.7
Fatal accidents per 100,000 aircraft movements 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3
Fatalities per 100,000 aircraft movements 0.6 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4

Data extracted 18 February 2019.

1 Excluding ultralights, balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, airships, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.

2 Source: Statistics Canada (2018 movements are estimated).

Table 4. Aircraft accident fatalities 2008-2018
  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Fatalities 64 72 72 66 63 65 21 47 45 34 38
Fatalities in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 57 68 70 63 61 57 15 39 35 32 28
Fatalities outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 7 2 0 1 1 6 2 4 3 2 10
Fatalities in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 0 2 2 2 1 2 4 4 7 0 0
Fatalities by operator type 64 72 72 66 63 65 21 47 45 34 38
Commercial 25 40 36 40 18 29 4 20 6 15 9
Airliner (CAR 705) 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Commuter (CAR 704) 0 17 1 2 1 5 0 0 0 0 0
Air taxi (CAR 703) 20 19 28 16 12 19 2 12 1 1 5
Aerial work (CAR 702) 5 1 7 8 3 4 2 6 2 7 4
Foreign air operator (CAR 701) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Flight training units (CAR 406) 0 3 0 2 1 1 0 2 3 5 0
Other commercial 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
Private 39 31 32 25 37 33 17 28 39 19 29
Private operators (CAR 604) 7 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 4 0 1
Recreational 32 31 32 23 37 32 17 28 27 17 29
Other private 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 2 0
State 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 0 1 4 3 7 3 0 1 0 0 0
Crew fatalities by operator type 35 35 40 37 40 44 15 29 25 26 20
Commercial 8 12 17 20 11 21 3 10 3 11 3
Airliner (CAR 705) 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Commuter (CAR 704) 0 2 1 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
Air taxi (CAR 703) 6 7 11 7 7 14 1 4 1 1 0
Aerial work (CAR 702) 2 1 5 5 2 4 2 4 1 4 3
Foreign air operator (CAR 701) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Flight training units (CAR 406) 0 2 0 2 1 1 0 2 1 5 0
Other commercial 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
Private 27 22 22 16 25 21 12 20 22 15 17
Private operators (CAR 604) 2 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 1
Recreational 25 22 22 14 25 20 12 20 18 14 17
Other private 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0
State 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 0 1 1 3 3 2 0 1 0 0 0
Passenger fatalities by operator type 28 37 31 29 22 20 6 18 20 8 18
Commercial 16 28 18 20 6 8 1 10 3 4 6
Airliner (CAR 705) 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Commuter (CAR 704) 0 15 0 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0
Air taxi (CAR 703) 14 12 16 9 5 5 1 8 0 0 5
Aerial work (CAR 702) 2 0 2 3 0 0 0 2 1 3 1
Foreign air operator (CAR 701) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Flight training units (CAR 406) 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
Other commercial 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Private 12 9 10 9 12 11 5 8 17 4 12
Private operators (CAR 604) 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0
Recreational 7 9 10 9 12 11 5 8 9 3 12
Other private 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0
State 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 0 0 3 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 0
Ground fatalities 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Fatalities by aircraft type 64 72 72 66 63 65 21 47 45 34 38
Aeroplane 34 39 59 46 44 46 19 35 37 27 30
Helicopter 16 27 7 15 9 12 0 8 3 5 6
Ultralight 13 5 4 3 8 4 2 4 4 1 2
Other aircraft type 1 1 2 2 2 7 0 0 1 1 0

Data extracted 18 February 2019.

Table 5. Aircraft accident serious injuries 2008-2018
  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Serious injuries 48 45 35 49 48 22 35 31 18 33 28
Serious injuries in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 43 41 34 46 39 22 34 28 17 31 23
Serious injuries outside Canada involving Canadian-registered Aircraft 0 1 0 2 5 0 0 3 1 2 1
Serious injuries in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 5 3 1 1 4 0 1 0 0 0 4
Serious injuries by operator type 48 45 35 49 48 22 35 31 18 33 28
Commercial 23 14 17 31 22 11 10 15 8 13 17
Airliner (CAR 705) 1 1 1 10 1 0 0 3 2 8 4
Commuter (CAR 704) 0 1 4 7 2 2 0 0 0 0 0
Air taxi (CAR 703) 18 6 6 9 15 6 5 8 4 0 9
Aerial work (CAR 702) 3 3 5 5 1 3 3 3 2 2 2
Foreign air operator (CAR 701) 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Flight training units (CAR 406) 1 3 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 2 1
Other commercial 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0
Private 23 29 16 18 26 10 23 16 10 20 11
Private operators (CAR 604) 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Recreational 23 26 15 18 26 10 23 14 9 19 7
Other private 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 3
State 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 2 0 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0
Crew serious injuries by operator type 25 26 22 18 24 13 23 17 8 22 19
Commercial 12 8 8 6 6 4 5 6 3 8 10
Airliner (CAR 705) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 3
Commuter (CAR 704) 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air taxi (CAR 703) 9 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 0 3
Aerial work (CAR 702) 2 3 4 4 1 2 1 3 1 2 2
Foreign air operator (CAR 701) 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Flight training units (CAR 406) 1 3 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 1
Other commercial 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
Private 12 17 12 12 18 8 17 11 5 14 9
Private operators (CAR 604) 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Recreational 12 15 11 12 18 8 17 9 5 14 6
Other private 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
State 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
Passenger serious injuries by operator type 23 19 12 30 23 8 11 14 8 11 9
Commercial 11 6 9 24 15 6 5 9 4 5 7
Airliner (CAR 705) 1 1 1 10 0 0 0 2 2 5 1
Commuter (CAR 704) 0 1 3 7 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
Air taxi (CAR 703) 9 4 4 7 14 4 3 6 2 0 6
Aerial work (CAR 702) 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
Foreign air operator (CAR 701) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Flight training units (CAR 406) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Other commercial 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Private 11 12 3 6 8 2 5 5 4 6 2
Private operators (CAR 604) 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Recreational 11 11 3 6 8 2 5 5 4 5 1
Other private 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
State 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Ground serious injuries 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 0 0
Serious injuries by aircraft type 48 45 35 49 48 22 35 31 18 33 28
Aeroplane 27 24 28 36 31 13 21 23 10 23 23
Helicopter 14 11 2 8 7 6 6 5 6 3 2
Ultralight 5 8 4 5 6 3 7 3 1 6 3
Other aircraft type 2 2 1 0 4 0 1 0 1 1 0

Data extracted 18 February 2019.

Table 6. Accidents involving Canadian-registered aeroplanes and helicopters by operation type1 2008-2018
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Aeroplane accidents by operation type2 197 211 209 192 191 204 170 190 167 171 143
Training 30 43 28 28 27 24 27 16 20 31 14
Pleasure/Travel 83 109 108 102 109 127 96 125 112 92 82
Business 7 4 6 7 4 2 9 1 3 1 8
Forest fire management 1 3 2 1 2 3 2 2 1 0 1
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 4 0 6 4 4 4 5 2 2 4 1
Aerial application 9 4 10 4 3 7 4 5 6 6 5
Inspection 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0
Air transport 46 35 37 35 28 26 22 22 16 27 26
Air ambulance 3 5 2 1 1 0 1 0 3 1 1
Sightseeing 2 2 1 2 6 1 1 1 0 1 1
Other/Unknown 11 8 9 10 8 11 4 16 5 8 6
Fatal aeroplane accidents by operation type2 16 21 28 21 25 24 10 18 21 18 17
Training 0 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 0
Pleasure/Travel 8 13 15 10 16 11 7 12 15 9 12
Business 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1
Forest fire management 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
Aerial application 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 1
Inspection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air transport 3 5 7 8 4 5 1 2 1 2 2
Air ambulance 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sightseeing 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 1 0 2 1 3 3 0 2 0 3 2
Helicopter accidents by operation type2 42 32 29 35 41 27 34 32 27 27 26
Training 6 5 0 2 1 1 2 5 1 7 1
Pleasure/Travel 9 5 2 9 8 2 7 8 9 4 6
Business 0 3 0 0 3 1 0 1 0 0 2
Forest fire management 0 4 1 2 1 3 0 2 0 2 2
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Aerial application 1 0 3 1 5 0 1 2 1 3 1
Inspection 0 0 1 2 2 2 3 0 1 0 1
Air transport 22 10 15 13 9 8 18 10 7 3 3
Air ambulance 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 0
Sightseeing 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1
Other/Unknown 3 4 6 5 10 7 2 4 8 6 8
Fatal helicopter accidents by operation type2 9 7 3 8 7 6 0 5 2 2 4
Training 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
Pleasure/Travel 3 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 2
Business 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
Forest fire management 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Aerial application 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Inspection 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Air transport 4 3 2 1 1 3 0 3 0 0 0
Air ambulance 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Sightseeing 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 2 0 0 1 3 1 0 0 1 1 1

Data extracted 18 February 2019.

1 Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, airships, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.

2 Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, when an occurrence involves a business aeroplane and a training aeroplane, the occurrence is counted in each type, but only once in the total.

Table 7. Aircraft accidents by province/territory 2008-2018
  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Accidents by province/territory 294 298 288 257 291 276 249 251 230 240 201
Newfoundland and Labrador 7 3 3 3 5 3 5 6 5 4 4
Prince Edward Island 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0
Nova Scotia 6 3 7 5 5 5 3 6 2 3 2
New Brunswick 1 2 5 3 3 2 6 2 5 7 1
Quebec 58 68 65 58 71 66 69 51 34 44 31
Ontario 69 74 71 63 67 72 67 74 50 62 53
Manitoba 27 19 27 17 18 13 12 14 17 10 7
Saskatchewan 19 14 18 18 9 19 12 13 10 13 13
Alberta 33 31 25 22 35 29 33 23 38 35 32
British Columbia 44 59 47 43 54 51 30 42 53 39 36
Yukon 7 4 3 8 8 4 4 6 2 4 4
Northwest Territories 8 6 9 6 5 3 3 2 3 2 5
Nunavut 8 3 7 4 3 4 1 2 3 3 1
Other airspace under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
Outside Canada 7 11 1 6 8 4 4 10 8 11 11
Fatal accidents by province/territory 38 35 37 35 42 38 14 29 29 22 23
Newfoundland and Labrador 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
Quebec 5 10 10 5 10 5 2 7 7 4 2
Ontario 7 6 9 6 10 9 5 6 5 4 6
Manitoba 1 0 1 1 3 2 0 1 1 3 0
Saskatchewan 0 2 0 3 1 2 1 2 2 2 1
Alberta 8 1 2 4 6 4 1 3 4 3 5
British Columbia 10 8 7 10 9 10 2 4 8 3 4
Yukon 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
Northwest Territories 2 1 3 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Nunavut 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other airspace under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Outside Canada 4 2 0 1 1 3 1 4 1 2 4
Fatalities by province/territory 64 72 72 66 63 65 21 47 45 34 38
Newfoundland and Labrador 0 18 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 0 0 2 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0
Quebec 7 16 28 9 11 5 2 16 15 6 4
Ontario 8 12 14 9 19 19 8 10 5 9 8
Manitoba 1 0 1 1 4 5 0 1 2 4 0
Saskatchewan 0 4 0 7 5 3 2 3 2 3 1
Alberta 12 1 4 5 6 5 1 4 4 5 6
British Columbia 26 14 15 16 15 17 3 7 12 4 6
Yukon 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
Northwest Territories 2 2 3 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 3
Nunavut 0 1 1 12 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other airspace under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
Outside Canada 7 2 0 1 1 6 2 4 3 2 10

Data extracted 18 February 2019.

Table 8. Accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft by province/territory (excluding ultralights) 2008-2018
  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Accidents by province/territory 252 250 244 230 239 243 212 227 200 208 173
Newfoundland and Labrador 5 3 3 3 5 3 4 6 4 3 2
Prince Edward Island 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Nova Scotia 2 1 7 3 3 5 2 5 2 2 1
New Brunswick 1 2 4 3 3 2 6 2 5 5 1
Quebec 50 60 52 52 52 57 57 44 28 39 28
Ontario 62 61 55 56 54 59 53 66 43 51 44
Manitoba 24 19 25 16 15 13 11 13 17 10 7
Saskatchewan 18 12 18 17 8 18 10 12 10 12 13
Alberta 28 28 24 18 30 27 31 21 36 30 27
British Columbia 33 44 38 39 46 44 27 39 43 35 30
Yukon 7 2 3 7 7 4 4 6 1 4 2
Northwest Territories 8 5 8 6 5 3 2 2 3 2 5
Nunavut 7 2 6 3 3 3 1 1 2 3 1
Other airspace under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Outside Canada 7 10 1 6 8 4 4 10 6 11 11
Fatal accidents by province/territory 26 29 32 30 33 32 10 23 24 21 21
Newfoundland and Labrador 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
Quebec 4 8 9 5 4 3 1 6 5 4 2
Ontario 4 5 8 4 9 6 3 5 3 4 5
Manitoba 1 0 1 1 3 2 0 0 1 3 0
Saskatchewan 0 1 0 3 1 2 1 2 2 2 1
Alberta 4 1 2 3 5 4 1 3 4 3 4
British Columbia 6 8 5 9 8 9 2 2 7 2 4
Yukon 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
Northwest Territories 2 1 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
Nunavut 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other airspace under Canadian air traffic control 25 3 5 2 10 5 5 4 6 6 3
Outside Canada 4 1 0 1 1 3 1 4 1 2 4
Fatalities by province/territory 51 65 66 61 54 59 15 40 34 33 36
Newfoundland and Labrador 0 18 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0
Quebec 6 14 27 9 5 3 1 15 7 6 4
Ontario 4 11 12 7 18 16 4 9 3 9 7
Manitoba 1 0 1 1 4 5 0 0 2 4 0
Saskatchewan 0 2 0 7 5 3 2 3 2 3 1
Alberta 8 1 4 4 5 5 1 4 4 5 5
British Columbia 22 14 13 15 14 16 3 4 11 3 6
Yukon 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
Northwest Territories 2 2 2 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 3
Nunavut 0 1 1 12 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other airspace under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
Outside Canada 7 1 0 1 1 6 2 4 3 2 10

Data extracted 18 February 2019.

Table 9. Reportable aircraft incidents1 2008-2018
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Incidents by category1 898 789 814 677 645 689 741 789 833 939 863
Risk of collision/Loss of separation 176 153 206 120 102 115 94 111 139 172 141
Declared emergency 323 313 310 275 266 294 313 333 311 348 340
Engine failure 121 107 87 95 92 83 104 110 110 98 91
Smoke/Fire 108 97 80 88 71 67 89 87 85 100 99
Collision 9 10 4 7 5 15 16 8 18 24 26
Control difficulties 39 24 32 31 33 25 40 29 35 34 41
Crew unable to perform duties 78 59 51 26 40 58 37 46 66 78 57
Dangerous goods-related 1 3 1 0 1 3 4 0 2 0 2
Depressurization 17 6 11 16 15 14 12 16 14 21 13
Fuel shortage 7 4 9 6 7 2 6 17 15 17 10
Failure to remain in landing area 9 7 13 11 10 9 20 17 19 22 13
Incorrect fuel 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0
Slung load released 5 3 9 1 1 4 5 14 15 21 23
Transmission or gearbox failure 0 3 1 1 2 0 1 1 3 1 0
Incidents by operator type1,2 898 789 814 677 645 689 741 789 833 939 863
Commercial 867 753 781 640 609 656 699 741 785 888 817
Airliner (CAR 705) 589 498 520 448 409 450 428 437 490 614 547
Commuter (CAR 704) 94 87 86 76 79 90 105 82 77 72 60
Air taxi (CAR 703) 35 43 29 29 26 35 81 119 106 103 90
Aerial work (CAR 702) 24 32 28 15 11 12 34 48 43 55 55
Foreign air operator (CAR 701) 190 138 170 109 117 113 82 75 94 80 91
Flight training units (CAR 406) 5 7 9 4 3 4 5 6 12 11 9
Other commercial 3 2 3 2 1 1 0 3 5 1 2
Private 33 38 34 40 35 31 37 51 45 56 52
Private operators (CAR 604) 17 24 15 20 20 18 22 19 20 32 19
Recreational 16 13 19 20 15 13 14 15 13 11 10
Other private 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 17 12 13 23
State 16 22 23 13 20 20 13 15 8 15 11
Other/Unknown 18 9 6 5 4 4 12 15 22 13 12
Incidents by aircraft type1,2 898 789 814 677 645 689 741 789 833 939 863
Aeroplane 881 771 789 659 633 673 715 749 795 892 822
Helicopter 19 21 32 20 17 20 30 47 38 52 43
Ultralight/Other aircraft type3 0 1 2 0 0 0 3 8 7 4 4
Number of aircraft involved in incidents1,4 1066 914 977 780 742 800 830 887 957 1063 973
Aeroplanes 1047 891 943 760 725 780 797 832 912 1006 924
Helicopters 19 22 32 20 17 20 30 47 38 53 45
Ultralight/Other aircraft type3 0 1 2 0 0 0 3 8 7 4 4
Incidents by province/territory1 898 789 814 677 645 689 741 789 833 939 863
Newfoundland and Labrador 21 16 30 14 17 29 22 30 31 27 35
Prince Edward Island 2 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 4 1 2
Nova Scotia 20 18 25 19 17 11 22 19 17 22 29
New Brunswick 12 5 10 7 7 7 8 9 9 4 8
Quebec 127 97 108 126 107 122 89 116 109 139 141
Ontario 271 195 176 178 155 166 157 152 166 230 144
Manitoba 58 45 51 31 31 31 51 54 47 49 43
Saskatchewan 28 18 19 11 18 27 32 21 25 19 16
Alberta 89 106 84 82 81 103 98 117 110 107 104
British Columbia 119 162 156 76 101 99 132 154 137 101 124
Yukon 4 6 4 3 4 5 6 6 5 5 2
Northwest Territories 27 14 21 30 17 16 25 17 9 20 22
Nunavut 17 8 21 19 19 10 20 15 15 15 19
Other airspace under Canadian air traffic control 35 33 31 27 23 23 24 20 32 19 14
Outside Canada 68 64 78 54 48 38 55 58 117 181 161

Data extracted 18 February 2019.

1 New TSB regulations came into effect on 1 July 2014. Under new reporting requirements aviation incidents include: a) aircraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2 250 kg (formerly 5 700 kg); b) aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under CARs Part VII.

2 Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each type, but only once in the total.

3 Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, airships, hang gliders, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and similar aircraft types.

4 "Number of aircraft involved in accidents" are aircraft counts, all other data are accident counts.

Table 10. Reportable incidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft1 2008-2018
  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Incidents by category1 724 657 665 576 530 579 654 711 737 866 772
Risk of collision/Loss of separation 149 137 179 106 92 105 84 101 127 159 134
Declared emergency 234 237 238 224 200 231 277 290 263 316 298
Engine failure 98 94 67 87 77 70 94 102 102 88 79
Smoke/Fire 90 84 69 67 59 55 76 79 75 95 85
Collision 8 8 3 7 4 14 15 7 16 23 21
Control difficulties 32 18 24 27 31 22 36 28 30 33 40
Crew unable to perform duties 76 57 50 26 38 56 35 44 65 74 55
Dangerous goods-related 1 3 1 0 1 3 3 0 2 0 2
Depressurization 15 3 10 15 13 10 10 14 13 19 11
Fuel shortage 4 4 6 5 4 2 3 15 11 16 5
Failure to remain in landing area 7 6 8 10 9 7 17 17 14 18 12
Incorrect fuel 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0
Slung load released 5 3 9 1 1 4 4 13 15 21 23
Transmission or gearbox failure 0 3 1 1 1 0 0 1 3 1 0
Incidents by operator type1,2 724 657 665 576 530 579 654 711 737 866 772
Commercial 700 629 641 550 504 552 622 674 705 825 743
Airliner (CAR 705) 582 494 519 445 409 449 426 436 489 613 546
Commuter (CAR 704) 94 87 86 76 79 90 105 82 77 72 60
Air taxi (CAR 703) 35 43 29 29 25 35 81 119 106 103 90
Aerial work (CAR 702) 24 31 28 15 11 12 31 47 43 55 55
Flight training units (CAR 406) 5 7 9 4 3 4 5 6 12 11 9
Other commercial 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1
Private 26 29 29 29 28 25 29 40 37 48 34
Private operators (CAR 604) 11 16 12 11 14 13 17 16 20 32 19
Recreational 15 12 17 18 14 12 11 14 11 11 9
Other private 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 10 6 5 6
State 15 19 19 13 17 19 11 15 6 13 10
Other/Unknown 17 9 5 3 2 4 9 14 14 10 12
Incidents by aircraft type1,2 724 657 665 576 530 579 654 711 737 866 772
Aeroplane 707 639 642 558 519 563 631 672 699 819 731
Helicopter 19 21 31 20 16 20 27 46 38 52 43
Ultralight/Other aircraft type3 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 8 6 4 4
Number of aircraft involved in incidents1,4 869 772 811 670 619 681 730 800 843 981 877
Aeroplanes 850 749 779 650 603 661 700 746 799 924 828
Helicopters 19 22 31 20 16 20 27 46 38 53 45
Ultralight/Other aircraft type3 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 8 6 4 4
Incidents by province/territory1 724 657 665 576 530 579 654 711 737 866 772
Newfoundland and Labrador 13 7 13 10 10 17 13 20 22 22 22
Prince Edward Island 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 4 1 2
Nova Scotia 12 13 19 14 9 9 19 17 12 17 21
New Brunswick 7 3 8 5 7 4 6 9 9 3 7
Quebec 96 77 89 104 84 96 81 103 99 127 122
Ontario 219 168 141 149 127 142 139 141 148 202 129
Manitoba 48 39 45 30 30 27 45 51 44 47 38
Saskatchewan 26 16 15 11 14 26 27 19 25 18 14
Alberta 76 92 74 76 75 93 93 110 103 102 97
British Columbia 102 141 134 68 87 93 125 137 118 100 115
Yukon 2 6 3 3 3 3 5 6 5 3 2
Northwest Territories 27 14 19 30 17 16 25 17 8 20 21
Nunavut 14 7 17 16 15 10 16 14 15 14 16
Other airspace under Canadian air traffic control 13 9 10 6 4 4 5 8 8 9 5
Outside Canada 68 64 78 54 48 38 55 58 117 181 161

Data extracted 18 February 2019.

1 New TSB regulations came into effect on 1 July 2014. Under new reporting requirements aviation incidents include: a) aircraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2 250 kg (formerly 5 700 kg); b) aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under CARs Part VII.

2 Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each type, but only once in the total.

3 Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, airships, hang gliders, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and similar aircraft types.

4 "Number of aircraft involved in incidents" are aircraft counts, all other data are incident counts.

Table 11. Number of accidents involving aeroplanes by phase of flight and selected event category1 2008-2018
  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Total
Standing/Taxiing 13 20 17 18 17 23 16 19 16 20 13 192
Collision with object 6 9 6 6 7 8 6 3 5 9 6 71
Collision with moving aircraft 4 3 1 1 2 1 3 5 4 3 3 30
Nosedown/Overturned 1 1 4 3 3 5 1 3 2 2 0 25
Landing gear collapsed/retracted 0 4 2 3 0 2 1 2 1 3 1 19
Loss of control 0 1 3 0 3 4 1 0 0 0 0 12
Other events 6 9 8 9 9 11 9 12 13 14 10 110
Takeoff 40 49 54 41 54 40 48 53 47 45 35 506
Collision with terrain 9 14 15 11 21 11 10 18 13 15 7 144
Loss of control 7 15 15 12 17 7 18 9 11 7 5 123
Collision with object 14 16 13 9 17 8 11 18 12 8 11 137
Take-off/Landing event 5 13 13 13 19 9 11 11 14 16 11 135
Power loss 14 12 14 11 6 13 16 12 10 11 5 124
Other events 30 34 35 28 33 26 34 50 30 35 31 366
En route 34 42 32 31 30 34 23 29 19 34 27 335
Power loss 18 26 13 14 15 15 14 8 12 15 11 161
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 14 10 11 13 9 8 7 5 4 5 6 92
Collision with terrain 5 9 8 8 7 10 5 4 5 5 5 71
Component/System related 3 4 4 1 2 3 2 3 0 3 1 26
Other events 14 21 20 18 14 18 14 26 8 24 22 199
Manoeuvering 12 3 11 12 11 12 4 11 13 11 12 112
Collision with terrain 3 2 5 6 8 7 1 7 6 7 4 56
Loss of control 3 1 3 1 4 1 1 2 4 5 4 29
Collision with object 4 0 7 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 24
Power loss 4 1 1 3 1 0 0 1 2 1 1 15
Other events 6 1 3 9 2 5 3 4 6 2 8 49
Approach 29 31 29 23 21 32 28 25 17 21 25 281
Collision with terrain 8 12 11 7 6 6 7 10 4 7 5 83
Power loss 8 7 7 2 0 11 6 2 3 6 6 58
Collision with object 8 3 6 8 1 7 9 7 6 7 3 65
Component/System related 5 9 2 5 3 3 4 2 0 2 3 38
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 5 4 5 2 2 7 7 1 1 4 5 43
Loss of control 5 3 6 3 4 5 1 4 1 0 1 33
Other events 7 14 9 8 14 10 9 18 12 13 18 132
Landing 114 121 112 113 111 116 99 118 113 95 92 1204
Missed or went off runway 17 24 24 27 26 28 14 30 30 21 17 258
Collision with object 21 23 25 28 26 18 20 29 24 23 27 264
Landing gear collapsed/retracted 28 18 26 24 22 25 17 27 27 23 19 256
Nosedown/Overturned 27 21 18 17 20 20 17 27 33 29 23 252
Loss of control 16 23 20 17 27 19 22 2 3 6 3 158
Hard landing 16 19 23 22 20 13 14 10 17 19 16 189
Collision with terrain 19 16 18 16 18 12 21 20 12 7 10 169
Wheels-up landing 8 12 7 3 7 10 7 10 9 4 5 82
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 5 11 5 3 9 11 5 12 18 18 7 104
Other events 38 39 46 49 42 45 28 77 77 50 58 549
Post-impact 13 13 20 11 19 13 16 37 57 41 43 283
Fire/Explosion/Fumes 9 8 15 6 7 7 6 13 9 5 7 92
Other events 5 6 5 5 12 6 12 24 49 37 37 198

Data extracted 18 February 2019.

1 Breakdowns do not add up to totals. For example, in the take-off phase, if an occurrence involves both "Loss of control" and "Power loss" events, the occurrence is counted in each event category, but only once in the phase total.

Table 12. Number of accidents involving helicopters by phase of flight and selected event category1 2008-2018
  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Total
Standing/Taxiing 3 3 0 6 4 1 4 2 0 1 4 28
Collision with terrain 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 5
Loss of control 1 0 0 2 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 6
Collision with object 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 1 6
Other events 2 3 0 5 4 1 4 0 0 0 4 23
Takeoff 7 4 2 7 7 7 9 4 6 5 5 63
Loss of control 4 1 1 4 2 0 5 1 4 4 1 27
Collision with terrain 3 2 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 20
Collision with object 0 1 1 0 4 2 2 1 0 1 2 14
Power loss 1 1 0 2 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 7
Other events 4 1 1 1 2 2 4 1 3 2 2 23
En route 11 11 7 10 9 5 7 4 5 3 6 78
Collision with terrain 6 3 3 3 3 1 3 1 1 1 2 27
Power loss 4 5 3 2 3 1 1 1 3 0 1 24
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 5
Component/System related 3 1 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 8
Other events 10 5 4 7 6 4 5 3 4 3 5 56
Manoeuvering 9 7 6 10 11 8 4 8 8 7 3 81
Collision with terrain 4 3 3 6 5 5 2 3 5 3 1 40
Loss of control 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 3 4 0 25
Collision with object 2 1 2 3 3 2 1 1 3 3 1 22
Operations related event 1 2 1 2 2 1 0 2 5 3 1 20
Power loss 2 2 1 0 2 1 0 2 1 1 0 12
Other events 5 5 1 3 6 2 2 5 5 5 2 41
Approach 3 5 4 6 7 3 3 3 5 2 2 43
Collision with terrain 2 3 4 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 12
Power loss 0 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 3 0 0 8
Loss of control 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 2 1 1 9
Collision with object 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 6
Other events 2 3 3 3 5 3 2 2 4 1 1 29
Landing 17 15 15 7 13 12 12 18 16 13 12 150
Hard landing 6 2 4 4 4 1 3 1 0 1 2 28
Collision with terrain 5 5 4 2 4 0 3 6 0 0 2 31
Loss of control 6 2 1 1 1 2 4 6 2 1 2 28
Collision with object 3 5 5 2 2 5 5 1 4 3 6 41
Other events 4 9 7 2 4 9 5 10 4 5 5 64
Post-impact 3 4 4 4 2 3 2 5 11 1 6 45
Fire/Explosion/Fumes 2 3 1 2 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 12
Other events 1 1 3 2 1 1 2 4 11 1 6 33

Data extracted 18 February 2019.

1 Breakdowns do not add up to totals. For example, in the take-off phase, if an occurrence involves both "Loss of control" and "Power loss" events, the occurrence is counted in each event category, but only once in the phase total.

Table 13. Number of FATAL accidents involving aeroplanes by phase of flight and selected event category1 2008-2018
  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Total
Standing/Taxiing 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 0 7
Collision with object 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Collision with moving aircraft 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nosedown/Overturned 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Landing gear collapsed/retracted 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Loss of control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other events 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 0 7
Takeoff 1 6 6 4 6 4 2 9 5 6 5 54
Collision with terrain 1 6 2 1 4 3 0 4 4 5 2 32
Loss of control 0 3 1 2 2 2 1 4 4 2 2 23
Collision with object 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 1 0 1 1 7
Take-off/Landing event 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 5
Power loss 0 0 3 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 8
Other events 1 2 3 4 3 2 0 7 1 4 4 31
En route 7 8 9 9 8 9 3 7 5 5 6 76
Power loss 1 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 8
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 3
Collision with terrain 5 4 8 5 6 7 3 4 4 3 5 54
Component/System related 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2
Other events 3 5 4 4 2 5 1 6 2 4 5 41
Manoeuvering 3 0 2 1 4 3 2 4 5 4 5 33
Collision with terrain 2 0 1 1 4 2 1 4 4 4 3 26
Loss of control 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 2 2 4 14
Collision with object 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 5
Power loss 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other events 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 3 9
Approach 0 6 10 6 5 5 1 5 4 4 4 50
Collision with terrain 0 6 6 4 3 5 0 3 3 3 2 35
Power loss 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 4
Collision with object 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 7
Component/System related 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
Loss of control 0 2 5 0 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 11
Other events 0 3 4 1 4 1 1 2 2 2 2 22
Landing 2 3 3 5 3 3 4 4 5 0 1 33
Missed or went off runway 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 3
Collision with object 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 6
Landing gear collapsed/retracted 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nosedown/Overturned 0 0 1 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 7
Loss of control 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 3
Hard landing 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Collision with terrain 1 0 2 2 3 2 2 2 4 0 0 18
Wheels-up landing 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 3
Other events 0 2 1 1 2 0 2 1 3 0 1 13
Post-impact 6 8 13 6 8 8 4 10 9 5 8 85
Fire/Explosion/Fumes 6 6 12 4 6 7 3 10 7 4 6 71
Other events 1 3 1 2 2 1 2 0 2 1 2 17

Data extracted 18 February 2019.

1 Breakdowns do not add up to totals. For example, in the take-off phase, if an occurrence involves both "Loss of control" and "Power loss" events, the occurrence is counted in each event category, but only once in the phase total.

Table 14. Number of FATAL accidents involving helicopters by phase of flight and selected event category1 2008-2018
  2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Total
Standing/Taxiing 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Collision with terrain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Loss of control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Collision with object 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other events 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Takeoff 2 0 0 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 7
Loss of control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Collision with terrain 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 5
Collision with object 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2
Power loss 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Other events 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
En route 2 4 3 2 3 2 0 2 1 1 4 24
Collision with terrain 1 2 3 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 15
Power loss 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Component/System related 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Other events 2 1 2 1 2 2 0 1 1 1 3 16
Manoeuvering 4 3 0 4 3 2 0 1 1 1 0 19
Collision with terrain 3 2 0 3 1 2 0 1 0 1 0 13
Loss of control 1 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 6
Collision with object 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 3
Operations related event 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 4
Power loss 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 4
Other events 3 2 0 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 11
Approach 2 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 6
Collision with terrain 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
Power loss 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Loss of control 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Collision with object 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Other events 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
Landing 1 2 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 1 0 9
Hard landing 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Collision with terrain 0 2 0 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 6
Loss of control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Collision with object 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 5
Other events 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Post-impact 2 4 0 1 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 11
Fire/Explosion/Fumes 2 3 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 9
Other events 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2

Data extracted 18 February 2019.

1 Breakdowns do not add up to totals. For example, in the take-off phase, if an occurrence involves both "Loss of control" and "Power loss" events, the occurrence is counted in each event category, but only once in the phase total.

Definitions

The following definitions apply to aviation occurrences that are required to be reported pursuant to the Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board Act and the TSB regulations.

Aviation occurrence

  • Any accident or incident associated with the operation of an aircraft, and
  • Any situation or condition that the Board has reasonable grounds to believe could, if left unattended, induce an accident or incident described above.

Reportable aviation accident

An accident resulting directly from the operation of an aircraft where:

  • a person is killed or sustains a serious injury as a result of:
    • being on board the aircraft,
    • coming into contact with any part of the r aircraft, including parts that have become detached from the aircraft, or
    • being directly exposed to jet blast, rotor down wash or propeller wash,
  • the aircraft sustains structural failure or damage that adversely affects the aircraft's structural strength, performance or flight characteristics and would normally require major repair or replacement of any affected component, except for
    • engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited to the engine, its cowlings or accessories, or
    • damage limited to propellers, wing tips, antennae, tires, brakes, fairings or small dents or puncture holes in the aircraft's skin, or
    • the aircraft is missing or inaccessible;

Reportable aviation incident

An incident involving an aircraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2 250 kg, or of an aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, where:

  • an engine fails or is shut down as a precautionary measure,
  • a power train transmission gearbox malfunction occurs,
  • smoke is detected or a fire occurs on board,
  • difficulties in controlling the aircraft are encountered owing to any aircraft system malfunction, weather phenomena, wake turbulence, uncontrolled vibrations or operations outside the flight envelope
  • the aircraft fails to remain within the intended landing or take-off area, lands with all or part of the landing gear retracted or drags a wing tip, an engine pod or any other part of the aircraft,
  • a crew member whose duties are directly related to the safe operation of the aircraft is unable to perform their duties as a result of a physical incapacitation which poses a threat to the safety of persons, property or the environment,
  • depressurization of the aircraft occurs that requires an emergency descent,
  • a fuel shortage occurs that requires a diversion or requires approach and landing priority at the destination of the aircraft,
  • the aircraft is refuelled with the incorrect type of fuel or contaminated fuel,
  • a collision, a risk of collision or a loss of separation occurs,
  • a crew member declares an emergency or indicates an emergency that requires priority handling by air traffic services or the standing by of emergency response services,
  • a slung load is released unintentionally or as a precautionary or emergency measure from the aircraft, or
  • any dangerous goods are released in or from the aircraft.

Collision

Collision means an impact, other than an impact associated with normal operating circumstances, between aircraft or between an aircraft and another object or terrain.

Risk of collision

Risk of collision means a situation in which an aircraft comes so close to being involved in a collision that a threat to the safety of any person, property or the environment exists.

Loss of separation

Loss of separation means a situation in which the distance separating two aircraft is less than the minimum established in the Canadian Domestic Air Traffic Control Separation Standards, published by the Department of Transport, as amended from time to time.

Serious injury

  • a fracture of any bone, except simple fractures of fingers, toes or the nose,
  • lacerations that cause severe hemorrhage or nerve, muscle or tendon damage,
  • an injury to an internal organ,
  • second or third degree burns, or any burns affecting more than 5% of the body surface,
  • a verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation, or
  • an injury that is likely to require hospitalization.

ATS-Related Event

Any event related to the provision of air traffic control services including, but not limited to, failure or inability to provide service, emergency handling, or loss of in-flight separation.

Air Proximity Event

A situation in which, in the opinion of a pilot or air traffic services personnel, the distance between aircraft as well as their positions and speed have been such that the safety of the aircraft involved may have been compromised.

Operation

Operation means the activities for which an aircraft is used from the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until they disembark.

Operator

Operator has the same meaning as in subsection 101.01(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

Commercial Operators

Commercial operators include carriers that offer a “for-hire” service to transport people or goods, or to undertake specific tasks such as aerial photography, flight training, or crop spraying.

Airliner

An aeroplane used by a Canadian air operator in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, that has a MCTOW of more than 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or for which a Canadian type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of 20 or more passengers.

Commuter Aircraft

An aeroplane used by a Canadian air operator, in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, in which the aircraft is:

  • a multi engined aircraft that has a MCTOW of 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or less and a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of 10 to 19 inclusive;
  • a turbo jet powered aeroplane that has a maximum zero fuel weight of 22 680 kg (50 000 pounds) or less and for which a Canadian type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of not more than 19 passengers.

Aerial Work Aircraft

A commercially operated aeroplane or helicopter used in aerial work involving

  • the carriage on board of persons other than flight crew members,
  • the carriage of helicopter external loads,
  • the towing of objects, or
  • the dispersal of products.

Air Taxi Aircraft

A commercially operated aircraft used in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, in which the aircraft is:

  • a single engined aircraft;
  • a multi engined aircraft, other than a turbo jet powered aeroplane, that has a MCTOW of 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or less and a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or less; or
  • any aircraft that is authorized by the Minister of Transport to be operated under Part VII, Subpart 3, Division 1 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs).

State Operators

State operators include the federal and provincial governments.

Corporate Operators

Corporate operators include companies flying for business reasons.

Private Operators

Private operators include individuals flying for pleasure. Included are flights on which it is not possible to transport people or cargo on a “for-hire” basis.

Date modified: