Language selection

Air transportation occurrences in 2021

Table of contents

The Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB) gathers and uses transportation occurrence data during the course of its investigations to analyze safety deficiencies and identify risks in the Canadian air transportation system.

It should be noted that certain characteristics of the data constrain statistical analysis and identification of emerging trends. These include the small totals of accidents and incidents, the large variability in the data from year to year, and changes to regulations and definitions. The reader is cautioned to keep these limitations in mind when reading this summary to avoid drawing conclusions that cannot be supported by statistical analysis.

Throughout this document, there are instances where categories of occurrences sum to more than the total number of occurrences. For example, if a single occurrence involves an airplaneFootnote 1 and a glider, the occurrence count will increase by one in each aircraft category but the occurrence itself will be counted only once in the total of occurrences.

The 2021 data were collected according to the reporting requirements described in the Transportation Safety Board Regulations in force during that calendar year.

The statistics presented here reflect the TSB Aviation Safety Information System (ASIS) database at 15 March 2022. Since the occurrence data are constantly being updated in the live database, the statistics may change slightly over time.

Also, as many occurrences are limited to data gathering, information recorded on some occurrences may not have been verified.

COVID-19 impacts on civil aviation in Canada

Air transportation in Canada continued to be affected by COVID-19 during the whole of 2021. As the year progressed, vaccination rates increased and travel restrictions were eased in Canada and abroad, and commercial air travel resumed—in particular during the second half of the year. Information collected by Statistics Canada indicates that total aircraft movements (take-offs and landings) at the 90 airports with NAV CANADA towers and flight service stations numbered just under 300 000 in December 2021, up almost 17% from December 2020. Itinerant movements (from one airport to another) rose almost 35% to 215 000, while local movements (within the vicinity of the airport) declined nearly 14% to 83 000. Compared with December 2019, before the pandemic, total movements were down 19.7% in December 2021. Itinerant movements fell 21.0%, while local movements declined 16.3% (Figure 1). Unfortunately, data for small airports (without NAV CANADA towers or flight service stations) are not available.

Overall, aircraft movements at the 90 airports serviced by NAV CANADA reached 4.29 million in 2021, up 11.8% from 3.84 million in 2020. Compared with 2019 (before the pandemic), total aircraft movements in 2021 were down 26.8%. This figure is indicative of a partial recovery of activity in the commercial sectors responsible for air travel, air cargo, aerial work, and flight training. The numbers presented above also include recreational aviation activity at major airports. However, it is difficult to estimate the amount of activity – commercial or private – at small airports in Canada, or off-airport entirely, and therefore a full picture of aviation industry activity is lacking. Nonetheless, these activity patterns are informative, and give partial context to the accident statistics discussed in this document.

Figure 1. Total aircraft movements at major airports, by class of operation (Source: Statistics Canada)Footnote 2
Total aircraft movements at major airports, by class of operation (Source: Statistics Canada)
Figure 2. Passengers carried, major Canadian air carriers (Source: Statistics Canada)Footnote 3
Passengers carried, major Canadian air carriers (Source: Statistics Canada)

Overview of accidents and fatalities

Accident counts

Air transportation occurrences are reportable to the TSB if they occur in Canada. Occurrences that take place outside of Canada are also reportable if they involve Canadian-registered aircraft, and meet the criteria laid out in the TSB Regulations.Footnote 4

In 2021, a total of 190 air transportation accidents were reported to the TSB (Table 1 and Figure 3). This number is 12% higher than the previous year’s total of 170 accidents but 21% below the yearly average of 239 accidents reported in the prior 10 years, 2011 to 2020. Most (183) of the accidents in 2021 took place in Canada and involved Canadian-registered aircraft. Six accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft took place outside Canada, and one accident in Canada involved a foreign-registered aircraft. In general, the number of air transportation accidents has been decreasing in the last decade.

Figure 3. Reported air transportation accidents, 2011 to 2021
Reported air transportation accidents, 2011 to 2021

There were 169 accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft (excluding ultralights) in 2021 (Table 2). This is above the 2020 count of 153 accidents, and 19% below the average of 209 accidents in the preceding 10 years (2011 to 2020). If the 20 accidents involving ultralights are included in the count, there were 189 accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft in 2021.

Aircraft type

Of the 190 air transportation accidents reported to the TSB in 2021, 137 (72%) involved fixed-wing, powered airplanes (other than ultralights) (Table 1), 28 (15%) involved helicopters, 20 (11%) involved ultralights, and 6 accidents (3%) involved other types of aircraft. In the 10 years from 2011 to 2020, the average proportion of accidents involving each of these 4 types of aircraft has remained fairly constant: airplanes have been involved in roughly 75% of reportable accidents each year, helicopters in about 12% of accidents, ultralights in about 10%, and other aircraft in about 3% of accidents each year.

Operator type

There were 62 accidents that involved commercially-operated aircraft in 2021 (Table 1). This is 15% more than the 54 such accidents recorded in 2020, but 22% below the average of 79 accidents recorded in the 10 years 2011 to 2020.

Commercially-operated Canadian-registered airplanes were involved in 43 accidents in 2021 (Table 2 and Figure 4), and 4 of those involved operations under Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) Subpart 705, which certificates the operation of airliners. This is equal to the 4 accidents involving Canadian-registered airliners in 2020, and below the average of 6 accidents per year recorded from 2011 to 2020. In 2021, the TSB opened a class 3 investigation (A21Q0138) into 1 of the 4 accidents in that year that involved airliners.Footnote 5 This occurrence involved the failure of a main gear component during landing.

Figure 4. Accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, by aircraft type and operation type in 2021, compared with the 2011–2020 average
Accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, by aircraft type and operation type in 2021, compared with the 2011–2020 average

Also in 2021, there was 1 accident involving a Canadian-registered commuter airplane operating under CARs Subpart 704 (Table 2), as well as 18 accidents involving air taxi operations (CARs Subpart 703)—11 involving airplanes and 7 involving helicopters. These 18 air taxi accidents are more than the 13 seen in 2020, and remain well below the average of 28 accidents per year occurring between 2011 and 2020. Flight training units operating under CARs Subpart 406 were involved in 18 accidents in 2021, all of which involved airplanes (as opposed to helicopters). On average for the period 2011 to 2020, flight training units were involved in about 20 airplane and 1 helicopter accidents per year.

Overall in 2021, 127 air transportation accidents involved non-commercial (i.e., private aircraft) operations (Table 1), compared to 114 in the preceding year. The 2021 total is 18% below the annual average of 154 accidents from 2011 to 2020. Of the 127 total accidents in the non-commercial (private aircraft) operations category, 93 involved Canadian-registered airplanes (Table 2), with no accidents in 2021 involving an airplane operating under CARs Subpart 604 having a Private Operator Registration Document (PORD).

Most operators of non-commercial (private) Canadian-registered aircraft are classified as recreational. Recreational operators are responsible for a significant amount of flying activity, and tend to be involved in many accidents each year. In 2021, 126 accidents involved recreational operators of Canadian-registered aircraft—93 of them in fixed-wing airplanes (Table 2), 9 in helicopters, and 24 in other aircraft. These 126 accidents are 10% more than in the preceding year, but still 15% fewer than the 149 such accidents seen on average between 2011 and 2020.

In addition to commercial, and private operations, 1 accident in 2021 involved a state-operated remotely-piloted aircraft system (RPAS), or “drone”, and 1 additional accident was categorized as having an unknown operation type (Table 1).

Province or territory

Quebec and British Columbia, with 45 reported accidents each (all aircraft types, including ultralights), were the provinces with the largest number of reported accidents in 2021, surpassing Ontario with 35 (Table 7). Ontario averaged more accidents per year (60) in the 2011–2020 period than any other province or territory, with Quebec having the second-largest average accident count (51) for the same period. British Columbia and Alberta also have high average accident counts compared with the remaining provinces and territories.

Altogether, 6 accidents that were reportable under TSB Regulations occurred outside Canada in 2021. These all involved fixed-wing airplanes: 3 were operating commercially and 3 privately (recreational).

Focusing on Canadian-registered aircraft (excluding ultralights), most provinces saw fewer accidents reported in 2021 than average for the previous 10 years (Table 8 and Figure 5). British Columbia, with 41 accidents reported for the year, was the only location to have more accidents than the 10-year average (of 37).

Figure 5. Air transportation accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, in 2021 compared with the 2011–2020 average, by province or territory
Air transportation accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, in 2021 compared with the 2011–2020 average, by province or territory

Fatal accidents, fatalities, and serious injuries

The TSB recorded 22 fatal air transportation accidents resulting in 32 fatalities in 2021 (tables 1 and 4, and Figure 6). This is up considerably from 12 fatal accidents resulting in 16 fatalities in 2020, but is still 21% below the average of 28 fatal accidents involving 47 fatalities over the ten years 2011 to 2020. Of the 22 fatal accidents in 2021, 14 involved fixed-wing, powered airplanes, 5 involved helicopters, and 3 involved ultralight aircraft. All of these occurrences involved Canadian-registered aircraft and all but two occurred in Canadian airspace. There were no fatal accidents in Canada during 2021 that involved foreign-registered aircraft.

Figure 6. Fatal accidents and fatalities involving Canadian-registered aircraft, 2011 to 2021
Fatal accidents and fatalities involving Canadian-registered aircraft, 2011 to 2021

Eight of the 32 air transportation fatalities in 2021 involved commercial operations (Table 4): 1 of them under air taxi regulations (CARs 703), and 7 under aerial work (CARs 702). There were no fatalities involving airliner operations (CARs 705), commuter operations (CARs 704), or flight training operations (CARs 406) in 2021. The remaining 24 (of 32) fatalities in 2021 were linked to privately registered aircraft and involved recreational operators, with none involving an operator holding a PORD (CARs 604).

With regards to type of aircraft, 19 of 32 fatalities in 2021 resulted from accidents in fixed-wing powered airplanes (Table 4). Helicopter accidents resulted in 10 fatalities, and ultralight accidents accounted for 3 deaths. Of the 32 total fatalities, 18 were crew members and 11 were aircraft passengers. There were 3 fatalities among persons on the ground in 2021.

Overall, 44 persons received serious injuries in aircraft accidents in 2021 (Table 5), which is considerably more than the 18 persons seriously injured in 2020, and 41% above the average of 31 in the period 2011 to 2020. Twelve persons received serious injuries in accidents involving commercial operations in 2021: 3 in airliners (CARs 705), none in a commuter aircraft (CARs 704), 1 in the air taxi sector (CARs 703), 7 in aerial work operations (CARs 702), and 1 with a flight-training unit (CARs 406). The 7 persons seriously injured in aerial work operations is almost triple the yearly average of 2.4 serious injuries per year over the preceding 10 years. Also during 2021, 32 persons incurred serious injuries in recreational operations.

Accident rate

Accident rate as a key safety indicator

A key indicator of air transportation safety is the aircraft accident rate, which is calculated as the number of accidents per hours flown or per number of movements (a movement can be a takeoff or a landing). Analyzing trends of accident rates for different types of operators can signal emerging safety issues associated with specific operator types and activities.

Activity data (e.g., flight hours) broken out by operator typeFootnote 6 are required to calculate accident rates that enable trend analysis of specific operator types over time, or support comparisons across operator types or geographical regions.

Until 2010, Transport Canada provided activity data broken out by operator type, and the TSB used these data to calculate and publish accident rates across operator types. Since 2010, however, Transport Canada no longer provides hours-flown activity data breakouts by operator type, because it had concerns regarding the accuracy of those data, which, for some operators that operated under more than one subpart of the CARs, were collectively reported only under the most restrictive CARs subpart.

Reporting all hours for all subparts under a single total conflates and confounds airline and commuter activity, as well as the activity of many smaller air operators that carry out operations under multiple subparts of the CARs (commuter, air taxi, and/or aerial work) and report their activity as a single total. Furthermore, movement data as presently reported by Statistics CanadaFootnote 7 come from a survey that covers all aircraft movements at major Canadian airports with NAV CANADA air traffic control towers and flight service stations, but as of April 2020, Statistics Canada no longer collects data about movements at small airports without towers or flight service stations, and so activity at smaller airports is not reflected in the data.

Because hours-flown and movement data are currently not categorized by CARs subpart when collected by the Canadian government, there is no differentiation between sectors (e.g., air-taxi operators versus airline operators) or between different types of aircraft (airplane, helicopter, floatplane). Therefore, accident rates cannot be calculated for individual sectors of the industry.

Without hours-flown and movement data that are categorized by CARs subpart and aircraft type, it will be more difficult for sector stakeholders to assess risks and determine if mitigation strategies being carried out to improve safety are actually working.

Therefore, in 2019 the Board recommended that

the Department of Transport require all commercial operators to collect and report hours flown and movement data for their aircraft by Canadian Aviation Regulations subpart and aircraft type, and that the Department of Transport publish those data.
TSB Recommendation A19-05

Accident rate for Canadian-registered aircraft, in Canada and abroad, per 100 000 hours flown

Overall accident rate

Transport Canada collects information about the number of hours flown by Canadian-registered aircraft. The 2021 overall air transportation accident rate of 4.8 per 100 000 hours flown (Table 3) was calculated based on the 164 accidents (15% more than 2020) in Canada and abroad involving Canadian-registered airplanes and helicopters (ultralights and other aircraft types are excluded), and the estimated 3 422 000 hours flown by Canadian-registered aircraft (10% above the revised estimate for 2020).Footnote 8 This rate is equal to the 2020 rate of 4.8 accidents per 100 000 flight hours, and only slightly (4%) above the average rate of 4.6 accidents per 100 000 hours flown each year over the previous 10 years. While the number of hours flown in 2021 increased by 10% compared to 2020, the number of reported accidents increased by a similar amount – around 10%. Taken together this means the accident rate statistic held steady.

Despite the accident rate rising in 2019 and 2020, it remains statistically plausible that the accident rate for Canadian-registered aircraft has been trending generally downward over the past 11 years. The accident rate has fallen from 5.3 accidents per 100 000 hours flown in 2011 to a low of 3.4 in 2018 before rising again to 4.8 during 2020 and 2021. To test whether the change in rate was statistically significant, Kendall’s tau-b (τb) correlation and Sen’s estimate of slope were used to quantify the trend in Canadian-registered aircraft accident rate and fatal accident rate. Kendall's τb correlation coefficient is a nonparametric measure of the strength and direction of association that exists between two variables. Kendall’s τb was calculated on the 11-year series of accident rate values by year from 2011 to 2021. There was a moderate, statistically significant negative correlation that indicates a downward trend in accident rate per 100 000 hours flown over the period (τb = −0.4909, p = 0.0356). Sen’s estimate of slope, the amount of downward rate change per year, was −0.103 occurrences per 100 000 hours flown per year. A graphical illustration is presented in Figure 7.

Fatal accidents

Figure 7 also shows rate data for fatal accidents. For the 19 fatal accidents involving Canadian-registered airplanes and helicopters in 2021 (ultralights and other aircraft types are excluded), the fatal accident rate was 0.6 per 100 000 hours flown, which is up from the 2020 rate of 0.3, and is above the 2011 to 2020 average of 0.5 fatal accidents per 100 000 hours flown. There is no statistically significant change in the fatal accident rate since 2011 (Kendall’s τb = −0.3091, p = 0.1857).

Figure 7. Canadian-registered airplane and helicopter accidents per 100 000 hours flown, 2011 to 2021
Canadian-registered airplane and helicopter accidents per 100 000 hours flown, 2011 to 2021
Fatalities

In 2021, 29 fatalities resulted from accidents involving Canadian-registered airplanes and helicopters (excluding ultralights), yielding a rate of 0.8 fatalities per 100 000 hours flown. This fatality rate is higher than the 2020 rate of 0.4, and slightly below the average yearly rate of 0.9 from 2011 to 2020. There is no statistically significant trend (neither upward nor downward) in the fatality rate since 2011 (Kendall’s τb = −0.3818, p = 0.1021) (data not shown).

Accident rate per 100 000 aircraft movements in Canada, for Canadian and foreign-registered aircraft

Although data describing the number of aircraft movements at major airports are published by Statistics Canada, since 2020 no data about activity at small airports in Canada have been published or made available to the TSB. Without a complete picture to describe aircraft movements in Canada, the TSB cannot state an overall accident rate per 100 000 aircraft movements in Canada. As discussed in TSB Recommendation A19-05 (see above), and without movement data that are categorized by CARs subpart and aircraft type, it will be difficult for sector stakeholders to assess risks and determine if mitigation strategies being carried out to improve safety are effective.

Dangerous goods released

The TSB recorded 8 accidents in 2021 involving a release of dangerous goods (Table 1). This is above the average of 4.6 per year over the previous 10 years.

Accident events and phases

For each reported accident, the TSB records 1 or more safety-significant events that occurred, and the phase of flight for each of these events. For example, if an airplane suffers engine power loss during takeoff (safety-significant event 1), and then returns to land and has a runway excursion during landing (safety-significant event 2), each of the two events and their phase of flight will be recorded for statistical purposes. Tables 11 through 14 show, by phase of flight, how many accidents occurred for each event category, from 2011 to 2021. Note that if a single accident involves more than one event within a phase of flight, that accident is only counted once in the phase total. Therefore, the total number of accidents for each event within a phase will not necessarily sum to the total number of accidents for a phase. For example, in the "takeoff" phase, if an accident involves both "loss of control" and "power loss" events, the accident is counted once in each event category within the phase, but only once in the overall phase total. As well, approximately 30% of accidents from 2011 to 2021 involved events in more than a single phase of flight, so the number of accidents shown in the tables, and in figures 8 and 9, sum to more than the total number of accidents.

Figures 8 and 9 show the number of airplane and helicopter accidents by phase of flight and event category. Over the past 11 years (2011 to 2021), the distribution of airplane accidents (Table 11 and Figure 8) shows more accidents having events during the landing phase (83 of 137, or 61% of airplane accidents) or takeoff phase (40 of 137, or 29%) than in other phases of flight. Helicopter accidents (Table 12 and Figure 9) had events occurring most often during the landing (12 of 28, or 43%), manoeuveringFootnote 9 (9 of 28; 32%), and takeoff (8 of 28; 29%) phases of flight. Note that for airplanes, although the landing phase is associated with the largest outright number of accidents over the 11-year period, the en route (67) and takeoff phases (56) are associated with the largest numbers of fatal accidents (Table 13 and Figure 9), and manoeuvering with the largest proportion of fatal accidents (36 of 119; 30%). Similarly, for helicopters, the en route (20) and manoeuvering (19) phases are linked to more fatal accidents in the 11-year period than are the approach (3) and landing (7) phases of flight (Table 14 and Figure 10).

Figure 8. Airplane accidents having events in selected phases of flight, 2011 to 2021
Airplane accidents having events in selected phases of flight, 2011 to 2021
Figure 9. Helicopter accidents having events in selected phases of flight, 2011 to 2021
Helicopter accidents having events in selected phases of flight, 2011 to 2021

Overview of incidents

Incident counts

In 2021, 499 air transportation incidents of all types were reported in accordance with the TSB Regulations (Table 9). This represents an increase of 19% from the 421 that were reported in 2020, and is 34% below the average of 751 incidents per year between 2011 and 2020. In the mid part of the past decade incident counts had been generally increasing, which reflected both an increase in commercial flying activity and the introduction of new TSB reporting regulations that became effective July 1, 2014. Under these reporting requirements, air transportation incidents to be reported to the TSB were expanded to include aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff weight greater than 2250 kg (formerly 5700 kg) and aircraft being operated with an air operator certificate issued under CARs Part VII—Commercial Air Services. At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, both commercial flying activity and the number of reported incidents were greatly reduced.

Overall, 2021 saw a gradual increase in commercial air traffic in Canada,Footnote 10 and with it a gradual rise in reported air transportation incidents. While declared emergency (205 incidents) is still the most frequently reported incident category in 2021 (Table 9 and Figure 10), it should be noted that this category is somewhat a catch-all category for incidents where an emergency is declared and no other primary category (as set out in the TSB Regulations) applies. Risk of collision / loss of separation (ROC/LOS) incidents (62) decreased in proportion from a peak of 18% of all incidents in 2017 to about 12% of incidents in 2021. Incidents involving engine failure (83) rose in 2021 to about 17% of all incidents. Amongst the 20% of ‘other’ incident types, crew were reported to have been unable to perform their duties 16 times, or in 3% of all reportable incidents in the year, down from 34 incidents (8%) in the previous year. This category includes both flight crew and cabin crew.

Figure 10. Reported air transportation incidents, by type, 2021
Reported air transportation incidents, by type, 2021

The majority of air transportation incidents in 2021 (401 or 80%) occurred in Canada and involved Canadian-registered aircraft (Table 1). However, 72 incidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft occurred outside Canada in 2021. While this count is higher than the 66 incidents outside Canada in 2020, it contrasts with the peak of 181 in 2017 (and again in 2019), and the average of 96 per year in the 10 years from 2011 to 2020. Declared emergency and risk of collision/loss of separation (ROC/LOS) were the two most common incident types involving Canadian-registered aircraft outside of Canada (Table 1). Both of these incident types have increased in frequency in recent years. The TSB continues to monitor these trends moving forward.

The overall increase in reportable incidents is at least partially linked to improvements in reporting culture in the airline industry, and the adoption of safety management systems by many smaller commercial operators (in addition to all of the major Canadian airlines), and the increased use of electronic flight bags and portable devices, which make it easier for pilots to report incidents.

In part due to reporting requirements laid out in the TSB Regulations, commercial operations were the source of 461 (92%) of the 499 incidents reported to the TSB in 2021 (Table 9). More than half (246, or 53%) of these involved Canadian-registered airliners operating under CARs Subpart 705 (airline operations) (tables 9 and 10). This is down from a peak of 614 in 2017, and 47% fewer than the average of 461 incidents per year from 2011 to 2020 that involved Canadian-registered airliners.

Foreign air operators (CARs 701) were involved in just 27 incidents in 2021, or about 5% of all commercial incidents. This is fewer than the 32 incidents recorded in 2020, and was largely because of the continued reduction in transborder and international passenger traffic brought about by COVID-19 restrictions. Footnote 11

Data tables

Table 1. Reportable air transportation occurrences, by type of occurrence, 2011 to 2021
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Accidents 257 291 276 249 251 230 240 201 227 170 190
Accidents in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 241 267 262 238 232 214 222 180 210 165 183
Accidents outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 6 8 4 4 10 8 11 11 8 5 6
Accidents in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 10 17 10 7 9 8 7 11 10 0 1
Accidents1 257 291 276 249 251 230 240 201 227 170 190
Commercial 99 92 84 82 74 63 97 66 83 54 62
Airliner (CARs 705) 4 5 7 4 9 1 9 8 7 4 4
Commuter (CARs 704) 6 5 3 2 3 3 5 1 4 3 1
Air taxi (CARs 703) 38 33 33 34 23 26 28 23 26 13 18
Aerial work (CARs 702) 27 26 21 17 18 16 18 17 21 13 21
Foreign air operator (CARs 701) 2 2 2 0 0 0 4 3 1 0 0
Flight training units (CARs 406) 19 19 17 25 20 17 32 13 25 20 18
Other commercial 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 1 0
Private 149 185 179 159 172 164 142 134 143 114 127
Private operators (CARs 604) 5 3 4 3 0 5 0 3 1 2 0
Recreational 142 181 175 156 165 152 135 126 136 109 124
Other private 3 1 0 0 7 8 7 7 6 3 3
State 2 3 6 4 1 0 0 2 1 1 1
Other/Unknown 8 12 9 5 5 3 2 0 0 1 1
Accidents1 257 291 276 249 251 230 240 201 227 170 190
Airplane 201 205 212 176 197 174 178 153 176 133 137
Helicopter 36 41 27 34 33 28 27 26 28 16 28
Ultralight 17 36 23 32 17 22 25 18 18 17 20
Other2 3 9 15 8 7 6 10 4 6 4 6
Aircraft involved in accidents1,3 261 296 280 253 259 234 247 207 230 172 194
Airplane 204 209 215 179 202 178 184 159 178 135 140
Helicopters 36 42 27 34 33 28 27 26 28 16 28
Ultralights 17 36 23 32 17 22 25 18 18 17 20
Other2 4 9 15 8 7 6 11 4 6 4 6
Fatal accidents1 35 42 38 14 29 29 22 23 33 12 22
Airplane 23 25 25 12 20 22 18 17 27 7 14
Helicopter 8 7 6 0 5 2 2 4 3 2 5
Ultralight 3 8 4 2 4 4 1 2 3 3 3
Other2 1 2 4 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
Persons fatally injured in reportable accidents 66 63 65 21 47 45 34 38 70 16 32
Persons seriously injured in reportable accidents 49 48 22 35 31 18 33 28 31 18 44
Accidents in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 10 17 10 7 9 8 7 11 10 0 1
Fatal accidents 2 1 2 2 3 1 0 0 4 0 0
Persons fatally injured 2 1 2 4 4 7 0 0 11 0 0
Persons seriously injured 1 4 0 1 0 0 0 4 1 0 0
Occurrences with a dangerous good release 0 1 4 4 6 7 8 7 8 1 8
Incidents4 673 645 689 741 789 833 939 860 915 421 499
Incidents in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 519 482 541 599 653 620 685 608 654 319 401
Incidents outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 54 48 38 55 58 117 181 161 181 66 72
Incidents in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 126 138 129 102 106 117 106 115 113 43 30
Incidents4 673 645 689 741 789 833 939 860 915 421 499
Risk of collision / Loss of separation 120 102 115 94 111 139 172 141 138 48 62
Declared emergency 275 266 294 313 333 311 348 340 366 190 205
Engine failure 95 92 83 104 110 110 98 91 103 50 83
Smoke/Fire 88 71 67 89 87 85 100 99 91 25 44
Collision 7 5 15 16 8 18 24 26 31 8 6
Other 88 109 115 125 140 170 197 163 186 100 99

Data extracted 15 March 2022

1 Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each type, but only once in the total.

2 Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, airships, hang gliders, remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) and similar aircraft types.

3 "Aircraft involved in accidents" are aircraft counts, all other data are accident counts.

4 Under the 2014 TSB Regulations, reportable aviation incidents include a) aircraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2250 kg (formerly 5700 kg); b) aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under the Canadian Aviation Regulations, Part VII.

Table 2. Air transportation occurrences involving Canadian-registered aircraft, by aircraft and operator type, 2011 to 2021
  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Accidents1,2 230 239 243 212 227 200 208 173 200 153 169
Airplane accidents 192 191 204 170 190 167 171 143 168 133 136
Commercial 71 62 58 55 51 42 71 46 66 45 43
Airliner (CARs 705) 4 5 7 4 9 1 9 8 7 4 4
Commuter (CARs 704) 4 5 3 1 3 3 5 1 4 3 1
Air taxi (CARs 703) 27 19 19 19 12 16 18 18 21 10 11
Aerial work (CARs 702) 14 14 12 8 10 7 12 6 11 8 9
Flight training units (CARs 406) 19 18 16 23 16 16 27 12 23 20 18
Other commercial 3 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
Private 113 122 139 111 138 122 101 96 101 88 93
Private operators (CARs 604) 2 0 3 1 0 5 0 3 1 2 0
Recreational 110 121 136 110 132 114 98 92 97 83 91
Other private 2 1 0 0 6 4 3 2 3 3 2
State 2 1 2 3 1 0 0 2 1 0 0
Other/Unknown 6 6 7 2 1 3 0 0 0 0 0
Helicopter accidents 35 41 27 34 32 27 27 26 27 16 28
Commercial 26 28 22 26 23 18 22 17 16 9 19
Private 9 10 4 7 9 9 5 9 11 6 9
State 0 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Other/Unknown 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other aircraft accidents3 3 7 13 8 7 6 10 4 6 4 6
Fatal accidents1,2 30 33 32 10 23 24 21 21 26 9 19
Airplane accidents 21 25 24 10 18 21 18 17 23 7 14
Commercial 11 6 8 2 6 3 7 4 8 1 2
Airliner (CARs 705) 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Commuter (CARs 704) 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air taxi (CARs 703) 6 3 5 1 3 1 1 2 6 1 0
Aerial work (CARs 702) 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 0 2
Flight training units (CARs 406) 1 0 1 0 1 1 3 0 1 0 0
Other commercial 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Private 10 17 14 8 13 18 11 13 15 6 12
Private operators (CARs 604) 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
Recreational 10 17 13 8 13 16 10 13 15 6 12
Other private 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
State 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Helicopter accidents 8 7 6 0 5 2 2 4 3 2 5
Commercial 6 5 6 0 4 1 2 1 1 1 4
Private 2 1 0 0 1 1 0 3 2 1 1
State 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other aircraft accidents3 1 1 3 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0
Persons fatally injured2 61 54 59 15 40 34 33 36 54 13 29
Persons seriously injured2 43 38 19 28 28 17 27 21 26 14 36
Incidents2,4 573 530 579 654 711 737 866 769 835 385 472
Risk of collision / Loss of separation 106 92 105 84 101 127 159 134 128 47 61
Declared emergency 224 200 231 277 290 263 316 298 318 170 192
Engine failure 87 77 70 94 102 102 88 79 96 44 78
Smoke/Fire 67 59 55 76 79 75 95 85 83 21 41
Collision 7 4 14 15 7 16 23 21 27 8 6
Other 82 98 104 108 132 154 185 152 183 95 94
Accidents involving ultralight aircraft 17 36 23 31 16 22 25 18 18 17 20
Fatal accidents 3 8 4 2 3 4 1 2 3 3 3
Fatalities 3 8 4 2 3 4 1 2 5 3 3
Serious injuries 5 6 3 6 3 1 6 3 4 4 8

Data extracted 15 March 2022

1 Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each type, but only once in the total.

2 Excludes ultralight aircraft.

3 Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, airships, hang gliders, remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) and similar aircraft types.

4 Under the 2014 TSB Regulations, reportable aviation incidents include a) aircraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2250 kg (formerly 5700 kg); b) aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under the Canadian Aviation Regulations, Part VII.

Table 3. Rate of accidents per 100 000 hours flown, by Canadian-registered aircraft¹ in Canada and abroad, 2011 to 2021
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Accidents 227 232 231 204 222 194 198 169 195 149 164
Fatal accidents 29 32 30 10 23 23 20 21 26 9 19
Fatalities 59 53 57 15 40 33 32 36 54 13 29
Hours flown2 (thousands) 4 286 4 394 4 295 4 272 4 324 4 475 4 719 5 016 4 844 3 098 3 422
Accidents per 100 000 hours 5.3 5.3 5.4 4.8 5.1 4.3 4.2 3.4 4.0 4.8 4.8
Fatal accidents per 100 000 hours 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.6
Fatalities per 100 000 hours 1.4 1.2 1.3 0.4 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.1 0.4 0.8

Data extracted 15 March 2022

1 Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, airships, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.

2 Hours flown in 2019 to 2021 are estimates. Source: Transport Canada, email to TSB on 2022-03-23.

Table 4. Persons fatally injured in air transportation accidents, by type of operation, 2011 to 2021
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Persons fatally injured 66 63 65 21 47 45 34 38 70 16 32
In Canada, involving Canadian-registered aircraft 63 61 57 15 39 35 32 28 57 16 30
Outside Canada, involving Canadian-registered aircraft 1 1 6 2 4 3 2 10 2 0 2
In Canada, involving foreign-registered aircraft 2 1 2 4 4 7 0 0 11 0 0
Persons fatally injured 66 63 65 21 47 45 34 38 70 16 32
Commercial 40 18 29 4 20 6 15 9 25 2 8
Airliner (CARs 705) 12 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Commuter (CARs 704) 2 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air taxi (CARs 703) 16 12 19 2 12 1 1 5 21 1 1
Aerial work (CARs 702) 8 3 4 2 6 2 7 4 3 1 7
Foreign air operator (CARs 701) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Flight training units (CARs 406) 2 1 1 0 2 3 5 0 1 0 0
Other commercial 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Private 25 37 33 17 28 39 19 29 45 14 24
Private operators (CARs 604) 2 0 1 0 0 4 0 1 0 0 0
Recreational 23 37 32 17 28 27 17 29 43 14 24
Other private 0 0 0 0 0 8 2 0 2 0 0
State 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 3 7 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Crew members fatally injured 37 40 44 15 29 25 26 20 34 11 18
Commercial 20 11 21 3 10 3 11 3 10 2 4
Airliner (CARs 705) 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Commuter (CARs 704) 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air taxi (CARs 703) 7 7 14 1 4 1 1 0 8 1 0
Aerial work (CARs 702) 5 2 4 2 4 1 4 3 1 1 4
Foreign air operator (CARs 701) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Flight training units (CARs 406) 2 1 1 0 2 1 5 0 1 0 0
Other commercial 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Private 16 25 21 12 20 22 15 17 24 9 14
Private operators (CARs 604) 2 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
Recreational 14 25 20 12 20 18 14 17 22 9 14
Other private 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 2 0 0
State 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 3 3 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Passengers fatally injured 29 22 20 6 18 20 8 18 36 5 11
Commercial 20 6 8 1 10 3 4 6 15 0 3
Airliner (CARs 705) 8 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Commuter (CARs 704) 0 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air taxi (CARs 703) 9 5 5 1 8 0 0 5 13 0 0
Aerial work (CARs 702) 3 0 0 0 2 1 3 1 2 0 3
Foreign air operator (CARs 701) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Flight training units (CARs 406) 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0
Other commercial 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Private 9 12 11 5 8 17 4 12 21 5 8
Private operators (CARs 604) 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0
Recreational 9 12 11 5 8 9 3 12 21 5 8
Other private 0 0 0 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 0
State 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Persons on the ground fatally injured 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
Persons fatally injured 66 63 65 21 47 45 34 38 70 16 32
Airplane 46 44 46 19 35 37 27 30 60 11 19
Helicopter 15 9 12 0 8 3 5 6 5 2 10
Ultralight 3 8 4 2 4 4 1 2 5 3 3
Other aircraft type 2 2 7 0 0 1 1 0 2 0 0

Data extracted 15 March 2022

Table 5. Persons seriously injured in air transportation accidents, by type of operation, 2011 to 2021
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Persons seriously injured 49 48 22 35 31 18 33 28 31 18 44
In Canada, involving Canadian-registered aircraft 46 39 22 34 28 17 31 23 27 15 42
Outside Canada, involving Canadian-registered Aircraft 2 5 0 0 3 1 2 1 3 3 2
In Canada, involving foreign-registered aircraft 1 4 0 1 0 0 0 4 1 0 0
Persons seriously injured 49 48 22 35 31 18 33 28 31 18 44
Commercial 31 22 11 10 15 8 13 17 13 4 12
Airliner (CARs 705) 10 1 0 0 3 2 8 4 1 1 3
Commuter (CARs 704) 7 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Air taxi (CARs 703) 9 15 6 5 8 4 0 9 8 0 1
Aerial work (CARs 702) 5 1 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 7
Foreign air operator (CARs 701) 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Flight training units (CARs 406) 0 0 0 2 1 0 2 1 2 1 1
Other commercial 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Private 18 26 10 23 16 10 20 11 18 13 32
Private operators (CARs 604) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Recreational 18 26 10 23 14 9 19 8 18 13 32
Other private 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 3 0 0 0
State 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Other/Unknown 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Crew members seriously injured 18 24 13 23 17 8 22 19 16 13 30
Commercial 6 6 4 5 6 3 8 10 2 3 11
Airliner (CARs 705) 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 3 0 1 3
Commuter (CARs 704) 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air taxi (CARs 703) 2 1 2 2 2 2 0 3 0 0 0
Aerial work (CARs 702) 4 1 2 1 3 1 2 2 1 1 7
Foreign air operator (CARs 701) 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Flight training units (CARs 406) 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 1 1 1 1
Other commercial 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Private 12 18 8 17 11 5 14 9 14 9 19
Private operators (CARs 604) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Recreational 12 18 8 17 9 5 14 7 14 9 19
Other private 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0 0 0
State 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Other/Unknown 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Passengers seriously injured 30 23 8 11 14 8 11 9 13 4 13
Commercial 24 15 6 5 9 4 5 7 9 1 1
Airliner (CARs 705) 10 0 0 0 2 2 5 1 0 0 0
Commuter (CARs 704) 7 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Air taxi (CARs 703) 7 14 4 3 6 2 0 6 7 0 1
Aerial work (CARs 702) 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Foreign air operator (CARs 701) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Flight training units (CARs 406) 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
Other commercial 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Private 6 8 2 5 5 4 6 2 4 3 12
Private operators (CARs 604) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Recreational 6 8 2 5 5 4 5 1 4 3 12
Other private 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
State 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Persons on the ground seriously injured 1 1 1 1 0 2 0 0 2 1 1
Persons seriously injured 49 48 22 35 31 18 33 28 31 18 44
Airplane 36 31 13 21 23 10 23 23 26 10 26
Helicopter 8 7 6 6 5 6 3 2 1 3 7
Ultralight 5 6 3 7 3 1 6 3 4 4 8
Other aircraft type 0 4 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 3

Data extracted 15 March 2022

Table 6. Accidents involving Canadian-registered airplanes and helicopters, by type of operation,¹,² 2011 to 2021
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Airplane accidents 192 191 204 170 190 167 171 143 168 133 136
Training 28 27 24 27 16 20 31 14 28 23 17
Pleasure/Travel 102 109 127 96 125 112 92 83 83 74 85
Business 7 4 2 9 1 3 1 7 5 4 4
Forest fire management 1 2 3 2 2 1 0 1 2 1 4
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 4 4 4 5 2 2 4 1 3 2 3
Aerial application 4 3 7 4 5 6 6 5 6 8 1
Inspection 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
Air transport 35 28 26 22 22 16 27 26 29 15 14
Air ambulance 1 1 0 1 0 3 1 1 1 1 2
Sightseeing 2 6 1 1 1 0 1 1 2 0 1
Other/Unknown 10 8 11 4 16 5 8 6 9 5 5
Fatal airplane accidents 21 25 24 10 18 21 18 17 23 7 14
Training 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 0 1 1 0
Pleasure/Travel 10 16 11 7 12 15 9 12 12 5 10
Business 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1
Forest fire management 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
Aerial application 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 0
Inspection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air transport 8 4 5 1 2 1 2 2 6 1 0
Air ambulance 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sightseeing 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 1 3 3 0 2 0 3 2 2 0 2
Helicopter accidents 35 41 27 34 32 27 27 26 27 16 28
Training 2 1 1 2 5 1 7 1 2 0 1
Pleasure/Travel 9 8 2 7 8 9 4 6 9 6 6
Business 0 3 1 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 1
Forest fire management 2 1 3 0 2 0 2 2 1 1 3
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2
Aerial application 1 5 0 1 2 1 3 1 3 2 1
Inspection 2 2 2 3 0 1 0 1 0 0 0
Air transport 13 9 8 18 10 7 3 3 9 2 6
Air ambulance 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Sightseeing 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 5 10 7 2 4 8 6 8 2 5 8
Fatal helicopter accidents 8 7 6 0 5 2 2 4 3 2 5
Training 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Pleasure/Travel 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 2 1 1
Business 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Forest fire management 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Aerial application 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Inspection 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air transport 1 1 3 0 3 0 0 0 1 0 1
Air ambulance 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sightseeing 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other/Unknown 1 3 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 2

Data extracted 15 March 2022

1 Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, airships, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.

2 Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, when an occurrence involves a business airplane and a training airplane, the occurrence is counted in each type, but only once in the total.

Table 7. Fatal air transportation accidents and fatalities in Canada and outside Canada, 2011 to 2021
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Accidents 257 291 276 249 251 230 240 201 227 170 190
Newfoundland and Labrador 3 5 3 5 6 5 4 4 3 2 4
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 5 5 5 3 6 2 3 2 1 1 2
New Brunswick 3 3 2 6 2 5 7 1 8 2 2
Quebec 58 71 66 69 51 34 44 31 50 33 45
Ontario 63 67 72 67 74 50 62 53 53 39 35
Manitoba 17 18 13 12 14 17 10 7 17 9 6
Saskatchewan 18 9 19 12 13 10 13 13 12 17 8
Alberta 22 35 29 33 23 38 35 32 29 25 29
British Columbia 43 54 51 30 42 53 39 36 38 34 45
Yukon 8 8 4 4 6 2 4 4 3 0 3
Northwest Territories 6 5 3 3 2 3 2 5 4 1 2
Nunavut 4 3 4 1 2 3 3 1 1 2 3
Other airspace under Canadian air traffic control 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
Outside Canada 6 8 4 4 10 8 11 11 8 5 6
Fatal accidents 35 42 38 14 29 29 22 23 33 12 22
Newfoundland and Labrador 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 1 1
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
Quebec 5 10 5 2 7 7 4 2 9 4 6
Ontario 6 10 9 5 6 5 4 6 6 1 5
Manitoba 1 3 2 0 1 1 3 0 1 0 0
Saskatchewan 3 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 0 0 0
Alberta 4 6 4 1 3 4 3 5 5 3 4
British Columbia 10 9 10 2 4 8 3 4 5 3 2
Yukon 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0
Northwest Territories 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
Nunavut 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Other airspace under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Outside Canada 1 1 3 1 4 1 2 4 1 0 2
Persons fatally injured 66 63 65 21 47 45 34 38 70 16 32
Newfoundland and Labrador 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 8 1 2
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 1 0 0
Quebec 9 11 5 2 16 15 6 4 14 5 7
Ontario 9 19 19 8 10 5 9 8 16 1 6
Manitoba 1 4 5 0 1 2 4 0 3 0 0
Saskatchewan 7 5 3 2 3 2 3 1 0 0 0
Alberta 5 6 5 1 4 4 5 6 8 6 8
British Columbia 16 15 17 3 7 12 4 6 12 3 3
Yukon 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 4 0 0
Northwest Territories 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0
Nunavut 12 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
Other airspace under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Outside Canada 1 1 6 2 4 3 2 10 2 0 2

Data extracted 15 March 2022

Table 8. Accidents and fatal accidents in Canada and outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft,¹ 2011 to 2021
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Accidents 230 239 243 212 227 200 208 173 200 153 169
Newfoundland and Labrador 3 5 3 4 6 4 3 2 2 2 3
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 3 3 5 2 5 2 2 1 1 1 2
New Brunswick 3 3 2 6 2 5 5 1 8 2 2
Quebec 52 52 57 57 44 28 39 28 41 29 40
Ontario 56 54 59 53 66 43 51 44 46 32 27
Manitoba 16 15 13 11 13 17 10 7 12 9 6
Saskatchewan 17 8 18 10 12 10 12 13 12 16 8
Alberta 18 30 27 31 21 36 30 27 27 23 27
British Columbia 39 46 44 27 39 43 35 30 36 32 41
Yukon 7 7 4 4 6 1 4 2 2 0 2
Northwest Territories 6 5 3 2 2 3 2 5 4 1 2
Nunavut 3 3 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3
Other airspace under Canadian air traffic control 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
Outside Canada 6 8 4 4 10 6 11 11 8 4 6
Fatal accidents 30 33 32 10 23 24 21 21 26 9 19
Newfoundland and Labrador 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
Quebec 5 4 3 1 6 5 4 2 5 3 5
Ontario 4 9 6 3 5 3 4 5 5 0 3
Manitoba 1 3 2 0 0 1 3 0 1 0 0
Saskatchewan 3 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 0 0 0
Alberta 3 5 4 1 3 4 3 4 5 2 4
British Columbia 9 8 9 2 2 7 2 4 5 3 2
Yukon 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
Northwest Territories 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
Nunavut 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Other airspace under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Outside Canada 1 1 3 1 4 1 2 4 1 0 2
Persons fatally injured 61 54 59 15 40 34 33 36 54 13 29
Newfoundland and Labrador 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 7 1 2
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
New Brunswick 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 1 0 0
Quebec 9 5 3 1 15 7 6 4 8 4 6
Ontario 7 18 16 4 9 3 9 7 9 0 4
Manitoba 1 4 5 0 0 2 4 0 3 0 0
Saskatchewan 7 5 3 2 3 2 3 1 0 0 0
Alberta 4 5 5 1 4 4 5 5 8 5 8
British Columbia 15 14 16 3 4 11 3 6 12 3 3
Yukon 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0
Northwest Territories 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0
Nunavut 12 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
Other airspace under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Outside Canada 1 1 6 2 4 3 2 10 2 0 2

Data extracted 15 March 2022

1 Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, airships, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.

Table 9. Reportable aircraft incidents, by type of operation,¹ 2011 to 2021
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Incidents1 673 645 689 741 789 833 939 860 915 421 499
Risk of collision / Loss of separation 120 102 115 94 111 139 172 141 138 48 62
Declared emergency 275 266 294 313 333 311 348 340 366 190 205
Engine failure 95 92 83 104 110 110 98 91 103 50 83
Smoke/Fire 88 71 67 89 87 85 100 99 91 25 44
Collision 7 5 15 16 8 18 24 26 31 8 6
Control difficulties 31 33 25 40 29 35 34 41 25 25 24
Crew unable to perform duties 26 40 58 37 46 66 78 57 87 34 16
Dangerous goods-related 0 1 3 4 0 2 0 2 0 0 3
Depressurization 16 15 14 12 16 14 21 13 23 5 16
Fuel shortage 6 7 2 6 17 15 17 10 5 3 3
Failure to remain in landing area 7 10 9 20 17 19 22 11 9 10 10
Incorrect fuel 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 3 4 3
Slung load released 1 1 4 5 14 15 21 23 28 11 17
Transmission or gearbox failure 1 2 0 1 1 3 1 0 1 0 0
Incidents1,2 673 645 689 741 789 833 939 860 915 421 499
Commercial 637 609 656 699 741 785 888 815 869 393 461
Airliner (CARs 705) 446 409 450 429 437 490 614 547 572 220 246
Commuter (CARs 704) 76 83 95 106 87 79 73 60 67 50 51
Air taxi (CARs 703) 28 22 30 79 114 104 102 90 104 59 83
Aerial work (CARs 702) 15 11 12 34 48 43 55 55 59 35 56
Foreign air operator (CARs 701) 109 117 113 82 75 94 80 91 86 32 27
Flight training units (CARs 406) 4 3 4 5 6 12 11 7 13 7 8
Other commercial 2 1 1 0 2 5 1 2 4 2 2
Private 39 35 31 37 52 45 56 51 56 27 37
Private operators (CARs 604) 19 20 18 22 19 19 32 19 25 12 17
Recreational 20 15 13 14 15 14 11 9 10 6 15
Other private 1 0 0 1 18 12 13 23 22 10 6
State 13 20 20 13 15 8 15 11 8 5 7
Other/Unknown 5 4 4 12 15 22 13 12 12 2 3
Incidents1,2 673 645 689 741 789 833 939 860 915 421 499
Airplane 655 633 673 715 749 795 892 819 842 400 457
Helicopter 20 17 20 30 47 38 52 43 77 21 41
Ultralight/Other aircraft type3 0 0 0 3 8 7 4 4 6 0 1
Aircraft involved in incidents1,4 776 742 800 830 887 957 1063 970 1016 452 532
Airplanes 756 725 780 797 832 912 1006 921 931 431 490
Helicopters 20 17 20 30 47 38 53 45 79 21 41
Ultralight / Other aircraft type3 0 0 0 3 8 7 4 4 6 0 1
Incidents1 673 645 689 741 789 833 939 860 915 421 499
Newfoundland and Labrador 14 17 29 22 30 31 27 35 29 11 16
Prince Edward Island 1 0 2 0 1 4 1 2 1 1 1
Nova Scotia 19 17 11 22 19 17 22 28 28 13 6
New Brunswick 7 7 7 8 9 9 4 7 11 3 6
Quebec 126 107 122 89 116 109 139 141 147 75 76
Ontario 174 155 166 157 152 166 230 144 166 89 115
Manitoba 31 31 31 51 54 47 49 43 44 26 42
Saskatchewan 11 18 27 32 21 25 19 16 24 15 19
Alberta 82 81 103 98 117 110 107 104 106 43 40
British Columbia 76 101 99 132 154 137 101 123 129 56 74
Yukon 3 4 5 6 6 5 5 2 8 1 6
Northwest Territories 30 17 16 25 17 9 20 22 9 11 12
Nunavut 19 19 10 20 15 15 15 19 15 4 11
Other airspace under Canadian air traffic control 27 23 23 24 20 32 19 14 17 7 3
Outside Canada 54 48 38 55 58 117 181 161 181 66 72

Data extracted 15 March 2022

1 Under the 2014 TSB Regulations, reportable aviation incidents include a) aircraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2250 kg (formerly 5700 kg); b) aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under the Canadian Aviation Regulations, Part VII.

2 Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each type, but only once in the total.

3 Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, airships, hang gliders, remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) and similar aircraft types.

4 "Aircraft involved in accidents" are aircraft counts; all other data are accident counts.

Table 10. Reportable incidents¹ in Canada and outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft, 2011 to 2021
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021
Incidents1 573 530 579 654 711 737 866 769 835 385 472
Risk of collision / Loss of separation 106 92 105 84 101 127 159 134 128 47 61
Declared emergency 224 200 231 277 290 263 316 298 318 170 192
Engine failure 87 77 70 94 102 102 88 79 96 44 78
Smoke/Fire 67 59 55 76 79 75 95 85 83 21 41
Collision 7 4 14 15 7 16 23 21 27 8 6
Control difficulties 27 31 22 36 28 30 33 40 25 24 24
Crew unable to perform duties 26 38 56 35 44 65 74 55 86 30 15
Dangerous goods-related 0 1 3 3 0 2 0 2 0 0 2
Depressurization 15 13 10 10 14 13 19 11 23 5 15
Fuel shortage 5 4 2 3 15 11 16 5 4 3 3
Failure to remain in landing area 7 9 7 17 17 14 18 10 8 10 10
Incorrect fuel 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 3 4 3
Slung load released 1 1 4 4 13 15 21 23 28 11 17
Transmission or gearbox failure 1 1 0 0 1 3 1 0 1 0 0
Incidents by operator type1,2 573 530 579 654 711 737 866 769 835 385 472
Commercial 547 504 552 622 674 705 825 741 799 363 437
Airliner (CARs 705) 443 409 449 427 436 489 613 546 571 218 246
Commuter (CARs 704) 76 83 95 106 87 79 73 60 67 50 51
Air taxi (CARs 703) 28 21 30 79 114 104 102 90 104 58 83
Aerial work (CARs 702) 15 11 12 31 47 43 55 55 59 35 56
Flight training units (CARs 406) 4 3 4 5 6 12 11 7 13 7 8
Other commercial 0 0 0 0 1 2 0 1 3 1 2
Private 29 28 25 29 40 37 48 33 45 22 34
Private operators (CARs 604) 11 14 13 17 16 19 32 19 24 12 17
Recreational 18 14 12 11 14 12 11 8 10 6 14
Other private 1 0 0 1 10 6 5 6 12 5 4
State 13 17 19 11 15 6 13 10 8 5 7
Other/Unknown 3 2 4 9 14 14 10 12 10 1 3
Incidents1,2 573 530 579 654 711 737 866 769 835 385 472
Airplane 555 519 563 631 672 699 819 728 762 364 431
Helicopter 20 16 20 27 46 38 52 43 77 21 41
Ultralight / Other aircraft type3 0 0 0 3 8 6 4 4 6 0 0
Aircraft involved in incidents1,4 667 619 681 730 800 843 981 874 927 415 504
Airplanes 647 603 661 700 746 799 924 825 842 394 463
Helicopters 20 16 20 27 46 38 53 45 79 21 41
Ultralight / Other aircraft type3 0 0 0 3 8 6 4 4 6 0 0
Incidents by province/territory1 573 530 579 654 711 737 866 769 835 385 472
Newfoundland and Labrador 10 10 17 13 20 22 22 22 15 8 14
Prince Edward Island 0 0 1 0 1 4 1 2 1 1 1
Nova Scotia 14 9 9 19 17 12 17 20 26 11 5
New Brunswick 5 7 4 6 9 9 3 6 8 2 6
Quebec 104 84 96 81 103 99 127 122 125 68 73
Ontario 146 127 142 139 141 148 202 129 146 85 109
Manitoba 30 30 27 45 51 44 47 38 44 25 40
Saskatchewan 11 14 26 27 19 25 18 14 24 13 19
Alberta 76 75 93 93 110 103 102 97 100 38 35
British Columbia 68 87 93 125 137 118 100 114 124 52 70
Yukon 3 3 3 5 6 5 3 2 8 1 5
Northwest Territories 30 17 16 25 17 8 20 21 8 10 12
Nunavut 16 15 10 16 14 15 14 16 14 3 10
Other airspace under Canadian air traffic control 6 4 4 5 8 8 9 5 11 2 1
Outside Canada 54 48 38 55 58 117 181 161 181 66 72

Data extracted 15 March 2022

1 Under the 2014 TSB Regulations, reportable aviation incidents include a) aircraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2250 kg (formerly 5700 kg); b) aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under the Canadian Aviation Regulations, Part VII.

2 Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each type, but only once in the total.

3 Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, airships, hang gliders, remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) and similar aircraft types.

4 "Aircraft involved in accidents" are aircraft counts; all other data are accident counts.

Table 11. Airplane accidents by phase of flight and selected event category,¹ 2011 to 2021
2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Total
Standing/Taxiing 18 17 23 16 19 16 20 13 14 4 6 166
Collision with object 6 7 8 6 3 5 9 6 5 1 5 61
Collision with moving aircraft 1 2 1 3 5 4 3 3 2 1 3 28
Nosedown/Overturned 3 3 5 1 3 2 2 0 1 0 0 20
Landing gear collapse/retracted 3 0 2 1 2 1 3 1 2 0 0 15
Loss of control 0 3 4 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8
Other events 9 9 11 9 12 13 14 10 10 3 4 104
Takeoff 41 54 40 48 53 47 45 35 48 30 40 481
Collision with terrain 11 21 11 10 18 13 15 7 14 4 12 136
Loss of control 12 17 7 18 9 11 7 5 11 3 10 110
Collision with object 9 17 8 11 18 12 8 11 17 12 10 133
Takeoff/landing event 13 19 9 11 11 14 16 11 11 8 13 136
Power loss 11 6 13 16 12 10 11 5 12 6 2 104
Other events 28 33 26 34 50 30 35 31 38 28 36 369
En route 31 30 34 23 29 19 34 27 28 24 19 298
Power loss 14 15 15 14 8 12 15 11 12 8 5 129
Precautionary/forced landing / Ditching 13 9 8 7 5 4 5 6 8 4 6 75
Collision with terrain 8 7 10 5 4 5 5 5 6 3 2 60
Component/system related 1 2 3 2 3 0 3 1 2 3 1 21
Other events 18 14 18 14 26 8 24 22 21 19 15 199
Manoeuvering 12 11 12 4 11 13 11 12 15 14 4 119
Collision with terrain 6 8 7 1 7 6 7 4 5 6 1 58
Loss of control 1 4 1 1 2 4 5 4 0 3 1 26
Collision with object 1 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 5 3 0 21
Power loss 3 1 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 13
Other events 9 2 5 3 4 6 2 8 12 7 3 61
Approach 23 21 32 28 25 17 21 25 27 24 20 263
Collision with terrain 7 6 6 7 10 4 7 5 8 1 3 64
Power loss 2 0 11 6 2 3 6 6 5 6 3 50
Collision with object 8 1 7 9 7 6 7 3 2 5 0 55
Component/system related 5 3 3 4 2 0 2 3 3 2 1 28
Precautionary/forced landing / Ditching 2 2 7 7 1 1 4 5 7 4 2 42
Loss of control 3 4 5 1 4 1 0 1 5 0 2 26
Other events 8 14 10 9 18 12 13 18 21 18 16 157
Landing 113 111 116 99 118 113 95 92 93 80 83 1113
Missed or went off runway 27 26 28 14 30 30 21 17 23 20 18 254
Collision with object 28 26 18 20 29 24 23 29 25 18 19 259
Landing gear collapsed/retracted 24 22 25 17 27 27 23 19 17 18 18 237
Nosedown/Overturned 17 20 20 17 27 33 29 23 21 19 25 251
Loss of control 17 27 19 22 2 3 6 3 4 0 3 106
Hard landing 22 20 13 14 10 17 19 16 17 7 11 166
Collision with terrain 16 18 12 21 20 12 7 11 10 8 4 139
Wheels-up landing 3 7 10 7 10 9 4 5 7 1 3 66
Precautionary/forced landing / Ditching 3 9 11 5 12 18 18 7 7 9 7 106
Other events 49 42 45 28 77 77 50 58 53 53 50 582
Post-impact 11 19 13 16 37 57 41 44 31 9 6 284
Fire/Explosion/Fumes 6 7 7 6 13 9 5 7 5 4 0 69
Other events 5 12 6 12 24 49 37 38 26 5 6 220

Data extracted 15 March 2022

1 Breakdowns do not add up to totals. For example, in the take-off phase, if an occurrence involves both "Loss of control" and "Power loss" events, the occurrence is counted in each event category, but only once in the phase total.

Table 12. Helicopter accidents, by selected event category and phase of flight,¹ 2011 to 2021
  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Total
Standing/Taxiing 6 4 1 4 2 0 1 4 3 0 2 27
Collision with terrain 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
Loss of control 2 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 8
Collision with object 0 0 0 2 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 6
Other events 5 4 1 4 0 0 0 4 2 0 2 22
Takeoff 7 7 7 9 4 6 5 5 6 1 8 65
Loss of control 4 2 0 5 1 4 4 1 3 0 4 28
Collision with terrain 3 1 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 0 1 16
Collision with object 0 4 2 2 1 0 1 2 3 0 2 17
Power loss 2 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 6
Other events 1 2 2 4 1 3 2 2 4 1 6 28
En route 10 9 5 7 4 5 3 6 4 5 7 65
Collision with terrain 3 3 1 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 20
Power loss 2 3 1 1 1 3 0 1 1 1 2 16
Precautionary/forced landing / Ditching 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 4
Component/system related 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 7
Other events 7 6 4 5 3 4 3 5 1 5 5 48
Manoeuvering 10 11 8 4 8 8 7 4 9 5 9 83
Collision with terrain 6 5 5 2 3 5 3 2 2 2 3 38
Loss of control 2 3 2 2 2 3 4 0 2 2 4 26
Collision with object 3 3 2 1 1 3 3 1 4 1 2 24
Operations related event 2 2 1 0 2 5 3 1 6 1 1 24
Power loss 0 2 1 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 8
Other events 3 6 2 2 5 5 5 2 7 4 3 44
Approach 6 7 3 3 3 5 2 2 1 1 3 36
Collision with terrain 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 5
Power loss 0 2 0 1 1 3 0 0 0 0 1 8
Loss of control 1 1 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 8
Collision with object 2 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 5
Other events 3 5 3 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 2 25
Landing 7 13 12 12 18 16 13 12 12 9 12 136
Hard landing 4 4 1 3 1 0 1 2 0 0 0 16
Collision with terrain 2 4 0 3 6 0 0 2 1 1 0 19
Loss of control 1 1 2 4 6 2 1 2 3 6 2 30
Collision with object 2 2 5 5 1 4 3 6 2 5 1 36
Other events 2 4 9 5 10 4 5 5 7 5 3 59
Post-impact 4 2 3 2 5 11 1 6 5 2 5 46
Fire/Explosion/Fumes 2 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 3 2 2 13
Other events 2 1 1 2 4 11 1 6 4 0 4 36

Data extracted 15 March 2022

1 Breakdowns do not add up to totals. For example, in the take-off phase, if an occurrence involves both "Loss of control" and "Power loss" events, the occurrence is counted in each event category, but only once in the phase total.

Table 13. Fatal airplane accidents, by phase of flight and selected event category,¹ 2011 to 2021
  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Total
Standing/Taxiing 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 1 0 9
Collision with object 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Collision with moving aircraft 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nosedown/Overturned 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Landing gear collapsed/retracted 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Loss of control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other events 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 0 1 1 0 9
Takeoff 4 6 4 2 9 5 6 5 7 1 7 56
Collision with terrain 1 4 3 0 4 4 5 2 5 0 6 34
Loss of control 2 2 2 1 4 4 2 2 2 0 2 23
Collision with object 1 2 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 7
Takeoff/landing event 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 7
Power loss 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 6
Other events 4 3 2 0 7 1 4 4 3 1 5 34
En route 9 8 9 3 7 5 5 6 10 2 3 67
Power loss 2 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 2 0 0 8
Precautionary/forced landing / Ditching 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 4
Collision with terrain 5 6 7 3 4 4 3 5 6 1 2 46
Component/system related 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Other events 4 2 5 1 6 2 4 5 7 1 3 40
Manoeuvering 1 4 3 2 4 5 4 5 4 4 0 36
Collision with terrain 1 4 2 1 4 4 4 3 4 3 0 30
Loss of control 0 2 0 1 0 2 2 4 0 1 0 12
Collision with object 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 4
Power loss 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other events 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 3 2 1 0 11
Approach 6 5 5 1 5 4 4 4 4 0 1 39
Collision with terrain 4 3 5 0 3 3 3 2 2 0 1 26
Power loss 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Collision with object 2 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 5
Component/system related 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 3
Precautionary/forced landing / Ditching 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Loss of control 0 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 5
Other events 1 4 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 0 0 18
Landing 5 3 3 4 4 5 0 1 4 0 3 32
Missed or went off runway 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2
Collision with object 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 2 0 2 8
Landing gear collapsed/retracted 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Nosedown/Overturned 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 8
Loss of control 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Hard landing 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Collision with terrain 2 3 2 2 2 4 0 0 1 0 0 16
Wheels-up landing 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Precautionary/forced landing / Ditching 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Other events 1 2 0 2 1 3 0 1 2 0 2 14
Post-impact 6 8 8 4 10 9 5 8 4 1 0 63
Fire/Explosion/Fumes 4 6 7 3 10 7 4 6 3 1 0 51
Other events 2 2 1 2 0 2 1 2 1 0 0 13

Data extracted 15 March 2022

1 Breakdowns do not add up to totals. For example, in the takeoff phase, if an occurrence involves both "Loss of control" and "Power loss" events, the occurrence is counted in each event category, but only once in the phase total.

Table 14. Fatal helicopter accidents, by phase of flight and selected event category,¹ 2011 to 2021
  2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 Total
Standing/Taxiing 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Collision with terrain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Loss of control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Collision with object 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other events 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Takeoff 2 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 6
Loss of control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Collision with terrain 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
Collision with object 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Power loss 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Other events 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1
En route 2 3 2 0 2 1 1 4 3 0 2 20
Collision with terrain 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 2 2 0 1 12
Power loss 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Precautionary/forced landing / Ditching 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Component/system related 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Other events 1 2 2 0 1 1 1 3 0 0 1 12
Manoeuvering 4 3 2 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 19
Collision with terrain 3 1 2 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 2 12
Loss of control 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 5
Collision with object 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 3
Operations related event 0 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 5
Power loss 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Other events 2 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 9
Approach 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3
Collision with terrain 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Power loss 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Loss of control 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Collision with object 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Other events 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
Landing 1 2 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 7
Hard landing 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Collision with terrain 1 2 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
Loss of control 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Collision with object 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 3
Other events 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
Post-impact 1 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 7
Fire/Explosion/Fumes 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 6
Other events 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

Data extracted 15 March 2022

1 Breakdowns do not add up to totals. For example, in the take-off phase, if an occurrence involves both "Loss of control" and "Power loss" events, the occurrence is counted in each event category, but only once in the phase total.

Definitions

The following definitions apply to air transportation occurrences that are required to be reported pursuant to the Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board Act and the Transportation Safety Board Regulations.

Aviation occurrence

Reportable aviation accident

An aviation accident is an occurrence resulting directly from the operation of an aircraft in which

  1. a person is killed or sustains a serious injury as a result of
    1. being on board the aircraft,
    2. coming into direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts that have become detached from the aircraft, or
    3. being directly exposed to jet blast, rotor down wash or propeller wash;
  2. the aircraft sustains structural failure or damage that adversely affects the aircraft's structural strength, performance or flight characteristics and would normally require major repair or replacement of any affected component, except for
    1. engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited to the engine, its cowlings or accessories, or
    2. damage limited to propellers, wing tips, antennae, tires, brakes, fairings or small dents or puncture holes in the aircraft's skin; or
  3. the aircraft is missing or inaccessible.

Reportable aviation incident

An aviation incident is an occurrence resulting directly from the operation of an aircraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2250 kg or of an aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations in which,

  1. an engine fails or is shut down as a precautionary measure;
  2. a power train transmission gearbox malfunction occurs;
  3. smoke is detected or a fire occurs on board;
  4. difficulties in controlling the aircraft are encountered owing to any aircraft system malfunction, weather phenomena, wake turbulence, uncontrolled vibrations or operations outside the flight envelope;
  5. the aircraft fails to remain within the intended landing or take-off area, lands with all or part of the landing gear retracted or drags a wing tip, an engine pod or any other part of the aircraft;
  6. a crew member whose duties are directly related to the safe operation of the aircraft is unable to perform their duties as a result of a physical incapacitation which poses a threat to the safety of persons, property or the environment;
  7. depressurization of the aircraft occurs that requires an emergency descent;
  8. a fuel shortage occurs that requires a diversion or requires approach and landing priority at the destination of the aircraft;
  9. the aircraft is refuelled with the incorrect type of fuel or contaminated fuel;
  10. a minor collision, a risk of collision or a loss of separation occurs;
  11. a crew member declares an emergency or indicates an emergency that requires priority handling by air traffic services or the standing by of emergency response services;
  12. a slung load is released unintentionally or as a precautionary or emergency measure from the aircraft; or
  13. any dangerous goods are released in or from the aircraft.

Collision

Collision means an impact, other than an impact associated with normal operating circumstances, between aircraft or between an aircraft and another object or terrain.

Risk of collision

Risk of collision means a situation in which an aircraft comes so close to being involved in a collision that a threat to the safety of any person, property or the environment exists.

Loss of separation

Loss of separation means a situation in which the distance separating two aircraft is less than the minimum established in the Canadian Domestic Air Traffic Control Separation Standards, published by the Department of Transport, as amended from time to time.

Serious injury

Operation

Operation means the activities for which an aircraft is used from the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until they disembark.

Operator

Operator has the same meaning as in subsection 101.01(1) of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

Commercial operators

Commercial operators include carriers that offer a “for-hire” service to transport people or goods, or to undertake specific tasks such as aerial photography, flight training, or crop spraying.

Airliner

An airplane used by a Canadian air operator in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, that has a MCTOW of more than 8 618 kg (19 000 pounds) or for which a Canadian type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of 20 or more passengers.

Commuter aircraft

An airplane used by a Canadian air operator, in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, in which the aircraft is

Aerial work aircraft

A commercially operated airplane or helicopter used in aerial work involving

Air taxi aircraft

A commercially operated aircraft used in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, in which the aircraft is

State operators

State operators include the federal and provincial governments.

Private operators

Private operator means the holder of a private operator registration document issued under subsection 604.04(2) of the CARs.

Recreational operators

Recreational operators include individuals flying for pleasure. Included are flights on which it is not possible to transport people or cargo on a “for-hire” basis.