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Air transportation safety investigation A19W0094

The TSB has completed this investigation. The report was published on 17 January 2020.

Table of contents

Hard landing

WestJet Encore Ltd.
Bombardier DHC-8-402, C-FKWE
Edmonton International Airport, Alberta

View final report

The occurrence

On , a WestJet Encore De Havilland DHC-8-402 (registration C-FKWE) was operating as flight WEN3362 from Fort McMurray (CYMM), Alberta, to Edmonton (CYEG), Alberta, with 4 crew members and 70 passengers onboard. While landing on Runway 12, the aircraft made abnormal contact with the runway. After clearing the runway and while on Taxiway A2, the flight crew became aware that the nose tires had burst. Due to thunderstorm activity, company maintenance personnel had to wait for approximately 40 minutes before they could change the two nose tires. After deplaning passengers at the gate, a more detailed inspection of the aircraft revealed wrinkled fuselage skins, damage to the left nose gear door, damage to the forward pressure bulkhead, and damage to the nose gear assembly. There were no reported injuries to the crew or passengers.

Media materials

News release


Investigation report: July 2019 hard landing in Edmonton, Alberta
Read the news release

Investigation information

Map showing the location of the occurrence


Photo of Wade Fontaine

Wade Fontaine is a Senior Regional Investigator – Operations with the Western Region of the Air Investigations Branch. He joined the TSB in 2019 following 25 years of diverse work experience in law enforcement, naval operations, Air Force flight safety, and aviation consultation.

Since departing the military in 2011, he has provided contract pilot and safety services for airline and corporate flight departments, and has been involved in domestic and international aviation safety instruction.

Wade has substantial experience and professional level education with safety management systems and aircraft occurrence investigations.

  Download high-resolution photos from the TSB Flickr page.

Class of investigation

This is a class 4 investigation. These investigations are limited in scope, and while the final reports may contain limited analysis, they do not contain findings or recommendations. Class 4 investigations are generally completed within 220 days. For more information, see the Policy on Occurrence Classification.

TSB investigation process

There are 3 phases to a TSB investigation

  1. Field phase: a team of investigators examines the occurrence site and wreckage, interviews witnesses and collects pertinent information.
  2. Examination and analysis phase: the TSB reviews pertinent records, tests components of the wreckage in the lab, determines the sequence of events and identifies safety deficiencies. When safety deficiencies are suspected or confirmed, the TSB advises the appropriate authority without waiting until publication of the final report.
  3. Report phase: a confidential draft report is approved by the Board and sent to persons and corporations who are directly concerned by the report. They then have the opportunity to dispute or correct information they believe to be incorrect. The Board considers all representations before approving the final report, which is subsequently released to the public.

For more information, see our Investigation process page.

The TSB is an independent agency that investigates air, marine, pipeline, and rail transportation occurrences. Its sole aim is the advancement of transportation safety. It is not the function of the Board to assign fault or determine civil or criminal liability.