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Air transportation safety investigation A14F0065

The TSB has completed this investigation. The report was published on 9 January 2017.

Table of contents

Unstable approach and hard landing

Air Canada Rouge LP
Airbus A319, C-FZUG
Sangster International Airport
Montego Bay, Jamaica

View final report

The occurrence

The Air Canada Rouge LP, Airbus A319 (registration C-FZUG, serial number 697), operating as flight AC1804, departed Toronto Lester B. Pearson International Airport, Toronto, Ontario, under instrument flight rules for Montego Bay, Jamaica, with 131 passengers and 6 crew members on board. The flight crew was cleared for a non-precision approach to Runway 07 in visual meteorological conditions. The approach became unstable and, at 1429 Eastern Daylight Time, the aircraft touched down hard, exceeding the design criteria of the landing gear. There was no structural damage to the aircraft, and there were no injuries.

Media materials

News release


Unstable approach led to May 2014 hard landing of Air Canada Rouge flight in Montego Bay, Jamaica
Read the news release

Investigation information

Map showing the location of the occurrence


Photo of Ken Webster

Ken Webster joined the TSB team in 2005, and works as Manager, Regional Operations out of the Ontario office. Mr. Webster has been investigator-in-charge in numerous TSB investigations, and assisted in several others, involving airplane, helicopter and air traffic control. Prior to the TSB he worked in civil aviation for 20 years, in several different capacities. As a pilot, Mr. Webster has flown numerous aircraft types throughout Canada and the US.

Class of investigation

This is a class 3 investigation. These investigations analyze a small number of safety issues, and may result in recommendations. Class 3 investigations are generally completed within 450 days. For more information, see the Policy on Occurrence Classification.

TSB investigation process

There are 3 phases to a TSB investigation

  1. Field phase: a team of investigators examines the occurrence site and wreckage, interviews witnesses and collects pertinent information.
  2. Examination and analysis phase: the TSB reviews pertinent records, tests components of the wreckage in the lab, determines the sequence of events and identifies safety deficiencies. When safety deficiencies are suspected or confirmed, the TSB advises the appropriate authority without waiting until publication of the final report.
  3. Report phase: a confidential draft report is approved by the Board and sent to persons and corporations who are directly concerned by the report. They then have the opportunity to dispute or correct information they believe to be incorrect. The Board considers all representations before approving the final report, which is subsequently released to the public.

For more information, see our Investigation process page.

The TSB is an independent agency that investigates air, marine, pipeline, and rail transportation occurrences. Its sole aim is the advancement of transportation safety. It is not the function of the Board to assign fault or determine civil or criminal liability.