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Air transportation safety investigation A20P0013

The TSB has completed this investigation. The report was published on 22 July 2021.

Table of contents

Runway excursion

WestJet Encore Ltd.
De Havilland Aircraft of Canada Ltd. DHC-8-402, C-FKWE
Terrace Airport, British Columbia

View final report

The occurrence

On , the WestJet Encore Ltd. De Havilland Aircraft of Canada Ltd. DHC-8-402 aircraft (registration C-FKWE, serial number 4467) was conducting flight WEN3107 from Vancouver International Airport, British Columbia, to Terrace Airport, British Columbia, with 4 crew members and 43 passengers on board. At 2106 Pacific Standard Time, during the landing roll on Runway 33, the aircraft drifted left from the snow-cleared area of the runway and the left main landing gear came into contact with a windrow. As a result, the aircraft was pulled to the left and the nose and right main landing gear also came into contact with the windrow. The aircraft travelled through the uncleared portion of the runway and the left main landing gear exited the runway surface, outside of the runway edge lights, travelling for approximately 400 feet before returning to the runway. During the runway excursion through the windrow and uncleared portion of the runway, the aircraft’s nose landing gear collapsed rearward. After the aircraft came to a stop, the flight crew requested the services of aircraft rescue and fire fighting. There were no injuries. The passengers were transported to the airport terminal by bus approximately 30 minutes after landing. The damage to the aircraft included the collapsed nose landing gear and damaged right propeller blades. The accident occurred in the hours of darkness with limited visibility due to snowfall.

Media materials

News release


Limited visual cues and runway conditions contributed to runway excursion of passenger aircraft in Terrace, BC
Read the news release

Investigation information

Map showing the location of the occurrence


Photo of Jessica Hamstra

Jessica Hamstra joined the Transportation Safety Board of Canada in 2019. Over the course of her aviation career, Ms. Hamstra has gained experience in numerous areas including flight training, medevac, charters, and scheduled airline operations. She has accumulated over 6000 hours of flight time on a variety of aircraft types, such as PA-28-140, C-180, King Air 100/200, Shorts 360, Dash 8, and Airbus A320.

Class of investigation

This is a class 3 investigation. These investigations analyze a small number of safety issues, and may result in recommendations. Class 3 investigations are generally completed within 450 days. For more information, see the Policy on Occurrence Classification.

TSB investigation process

There are 3 phases to a TSB investigation

  1. Field phase: a team of investigators examines the occurrence site and wreckage, interviews witnesses and collects pertinent information.
  2. Examination and analysis phase: the TSB reviews pertinent records, tests components of the wreckage in the lab, determines the sequence of events and identifies safety deficiencies. When safety deficiencies are suspected or confirmed, the TSB advises the appropriate authority without waiting until publication of the final report.
  3. Report phase: a confidential draft report is approved by the Board and sent to persons and corporations who are directly concerned by the report. They then have the opportunity to dispute or correct information they believe to be incorrect. The Board considers all representations before approving the final report, which is subsequently released to the public.

For more information, see our Investigation process page.

The TSB is an independent agency that investigates air, marine, pipeline, and rail transportation occurrences. Its sole aim is the advancement of transportation safety. It is not the function of the Board to assign fault or determine civil or criminal liability.