Statistical Summary – Aviation Occurrences 2013

Foreword

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This document provides Canadians with an annual summary of selected aviation safety data. The TSB gathers and uses this data during the course of our investigations to analyse safety deficiencies and identify risks in the Canadian transportation system.

The 2013 data were collected according to the reporting requirements described in the TSB Regulations in force during that calendar year. On March 12, 2014, the TSB issued new regulations that change the reporting requirements effective July 1, 2014. These changes will be reflected only in the 2014 Statistical Summary.

Users of these statistics are advised that, in a live database, the occurrence data are constantly being updated. Consequently, the statistics may change slightly over time. Further, as many occurrences are not formally investigated, information recorded for some occurrences may not have been verified. Therefore, caution should be used when utilizing these statistics. The 2013 statistics presented here reflect the TSB database updated as of 24 January 2014.

To enhance awareness and increase the safety value of the material presented in the TSB Statistical Summary, Aviation Occurrences 2013, readers are encouraged to copy or reprint the data presented, in whole or in part, for further distribution (with acknowledgements of the source).

The TSB is an independent agency operating under its own Act of Parliament. Its sole aim is the advancement of transportation safety.


Aviation occurrences in 2013

Accidents

Overview of accidents and fatalities (Tables 1, 2, 3a, 3b and 6)

In 2013, a total of 275 aviation accidents were reported to the TSB, a 5% decrease from the 2012 total of 291 and a 4% decrease from the 5-year average of 285. Of the total, 242 involved Canadian-registered aircraft (excluding ultra-lights)Footnote 1, similar to 2012 (Figure 1), and unchanged from the 5-year average of 243.

The 2013 estimate of flying activity is 4,261,000 hours, and the accident rate for Canadian-registered aircraft decreased from the 2012 accident rate of 5.5 accidents per 100 000 flying hours to 5.4. Analysis using linear regression indicates a statistically significant downward trend in accident rates (p < .01)Footnote 2 over the 10-year period from 2004 to 2013 (Figure 1). Similarly, the 2013 accident rate of 3.9 accidents per 100 000 aircraft movements decreased from the 2012 rate of 4.2  accidents per 100 000 aircraft movements, and that rate has also trended significantly downward (p < .05) over the same 10-year period.

Figure 1 - Accidents and accident rates, 2004–2013 [D]

(Click to view larger image)

The 242 accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft included 203 accidents involving aeroplanesFootnote 3(39 accidents involved commercially operated aeroplanes) and 27 accidents involving helicopters. The remaining 13 accidents involved gliders, gyrocopters, balloons, or rotary-wing UAS (unmanned aircraft systems).

Of the 39 accidents involving Canadian-registered commercial aeroplanes (6 airliners, 3 commuter aircraft, 18 air taxi and 12 aerial work) in 2013 (Figure 2), 7 resulted in fatalities. Five fatal accidents involved air taxis, one fatal accident involved a commuter aircraft, and one fatal accident involved aerial work.

A total of 158 accidents involved Canadian-registered private/other aeroplanes, 12% higher than the 5-year average of 141. In 2013, 14 such accidents resulted in fatalities, down from 19 in 2012, but unchanged from the 5-year average of 14.

Figure 2 - Accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, by aircraft type, 2013 [D]

(Click to view larger image)

In 2013, 30 fatal accidents involved Canadian-registered aircraft other than ultra-lights (Figure 3), slightly lower than the 2012 total of 33 but unchanged from the 5-year average of 30. The number of fatalities (57), while up from the 2012 total of 54, was slightly lower than the 5-year average of 59, and the number of serious injuries (19) was substantially lower than the 2012 total of 39 and the 5-year average of 36.

Figure 3 - Fatalities and fatal accidents, 2004-2013 [D]

(Click to view larger image)

In 2013, for all reportable accidents, crew fatalities accounted for 67% of aircraft fatalities, passenger fatalities accounted for 30%, and ground fatalities accounted for 3%.

In 2013, 27 accidents involved Canadian-registered helicopters, yielding a 24% decrease from the 5-year average of 36. Six of those accidents were fatal, resulting in 12 fatalities. Over the past 10 years, the highest proportion of helicopter accidents occurred during air transport operations (39%), pleasure/travel (15%), and training (7%).

In 2013, 23 accidents in Canada involved Canadian-registered ultra-light aircraft, a 21% decrease from the 5-year average of 29. Four of these were fatal accidents resulting in 4 fatalities.

In 2013, 10 accidents involved foreign-registered aircraft in Canada, with 2 fatal accidents resulting in 2 fatalities.

Accidents by selected categories

Province (Table 8): In 2013, Quebec and Ontario each accounted for 24% of Canadian-registered aircraft accidents, and British Columbia accounted for 18%, all approximately proportional to the number of registered aircraft in those provincesFootnote 4. In five of the six most populous provinces (Ontario, Quebec, British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan), the total Canadian-registered aircraft accidents were slightly higher than the 5-year average (Figure 4).

Figure 4 - Accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, by province, 2013 [D]

(Click to view larger image)

Accident events and phases (Tables 11 and 12): Accidents may be analyzed in more detail by examining the nature and distribution of selected events contributing to an occurrence. Tables 11 and 12 show counts of accidents involving selected event types within each phase of flight.

Although a single accident may involve more than one event within a phase, that accident is only counted once in the phase total. Therefore, the total of events within a phase will not sum to phase event totals. For example, in the "take-off" phase, if an occurrence involves both "loss of control " and "power loss" events, the occurrence is counted in each event category, but only once in the phase total. As well, approximately 5% of aeroplane accidents and 25% of helicopter accidents involve events in more than one phase of flight (not including "post-impact"), so the accidents shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6 sum to more than the total of accidents.

In 2013, the distribution was similar to that of 2012. The greatest numbers of aeroplane accidents were associated with landing (55%) and take-off (19%) phases of flight, followed by en route  (16%) and approach (15%) phases. The greatest numbers of helicopter accidents were associated with landing (44%), takeoff (26%), and manoeuveringFootnote 5 (26%) phases of flight, followed by en route (19%) and approach (11%) phases. The figures below show the distribution of accidents per phase of flight for the period 2004-2013.

Figure 5 - Aeroplane accidents by event phase of flight, 2004-2013 [D]

(Click to view larger image)

Figure 6 -  Helicopter accidents by event phase of flight, 2004-2013 [D]

(Click to view larger image)

From 2004 to 2013, of the 1192 aeroplane accidents with landing phase events, 26% involved missing or going off the runway, 21% involved collision with object, 18% involved landing gear collapse or retraction, and 18% involved a nosedown or overturning event. Of the 485 aeroplane accidents with take-off phase events, 30% involved collision with terrain, 29% involved collision with object, and 27% involved loss of control.

Collision with terrain was the predominant event in fatal aeroplane accidents from 2004 to 2013. Collision with terrain was involved in 62% of the 50 fatal aeroplane accidents with takeoff phase events, 68% of 87 fatal aeroplane accidents with en route phase events, 72% of 25 fatal aeroplane accidents with manoeuvering phase events, 70% of 46 fatal aeroplane accidents with approach phase events, and 50% of 30 fatal aeroplane accidents with landing phase events.

From 2004 to 2013, of the 150 helicopter accidents with landing phase events, 27% involved a hard landing, 23% involved a collision with object, 20% involved loss of control, and 19% involved collision with terrain. Of the 105  helicopter accidents with manoeuvering phase events, 50% involved collision with terrain, 27% involved loss of control, and 26% involved collision with object.

Collision with terrain was also the predominant event in fatal helicopter accidents from 2004 to 2013. Collision with terrain was involved in 9 of 12 fatal helicopter accidents with takeoff phase events, 21 of 30 fatal helicopter accidents with en route phase events, 17 of 25 fatal helicopter accidents with manoeuvering phase events, 4 of 9 fatal helicopter accidents with approach phase events, and 6 of 7 fatal helicopter accidents with landing phase events.

Operation type (Table  6): In 2013, aeroplane accidents occurred mainly on recreational flights (62%), followed by air transport (12%) and training flights (12%). Helicopter accidents occurred mainly on air transport flights (30%) and forest fire management flights (11%).

Incidents

Overview of incidents (Tables 1, 9 and 10)

Pursuant to TSB mandatory incident reporting requirements, 685 incidents were reported in 2013, with 578 involving Canadian-registered aircraft. This is an 8% increase from the 2012 total of 636, but a 10% decrease from the 5-year average of 761. Analysis using linear regression indicates a statistically significant downward trend in incidents (p < .05) over the 10 year period from 2004 to 2013.

In 2013, the most frequent incident types involving all Canadian-registered and foreign-registered aircraft were declared emergency (42%), risk of collision or loss of separation (17%), and engine failure (12%) (Figure 7).

Figure 7 - Reportable incidents by type, 2013 [D]

(Click to view larger image)


Appendices

Appendix A: Aviation occurrence tables

Table 1. Reportable aviation occurrences 2004-2013
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Accidents 308 306 303 323 294 297 288 257 291 275
Accidents in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 279 283 278 300 274 271 273 240 267 261
Accidents outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 9 7 11 13 7 11 1 7 8 4
Accidents in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 21 18 14 10 15 15 14 10 17 10
Accidents by operator type 308 306 303 323 294 297 288 257 291 275
Commercial 87 94 105 98 95 74 86 77 73 64
Airliner (705) 3 4 7 4 6 2 6 6 5 6
Commuter (704) 1 7 4 4 5 6 7 6 5 3
Air taxi (703) 58 56 63 53 64 44 44 37 34 32
Aerial work (702) 21 26 30 34 19 20 28 27 26 21
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 4 2 1 4 2 2 1 1 4 2
State 4 2 4 2 5 4 5 2 4 6
Corporate 6 10 3 10 4 6 2 7 6 6
Private/Other operator type (b) 213 201 191 213 191 215 195 172 208 199
Accidents by aircraft type 308 306 303 323 294 297 288 257 291 275
Aeroplane 221 218 216 243 208 223 220 201 207 211
Helicopter 41 50 56 46 44 33 31 36 40 27
Ultralight 37 31 28 30 29 35 30 17 36 24
Other aircraft type (c) 9 8 4 5 13 7 7 3 8 14
Number of aircraft involved in accidents * 314 314 311 327 300 303 290 261 296 278
Aeroplanes 225 224 223 245 214 228 222 204 211 213
Helicopters 42 51 56 47 44 33 31 36 41 27
Ultralights 38 31 28 30 29 35 30 17 36 24
Other aircraft type(c) 9 8 4 5 13 7 7 4 8 14
Fatal accidents by aircraft type 33 44 34 38 38 34 36 35 42 36
Aeroplane 20 27 24 25 16 21 28 23 25 23
Helicopter 5 10 9 6 9 8 3 8 7 6
Ultralight 6 5 1 5 12 4 3 3 8 4
Other aircraft type (c) 2 2 0 2 1 1 2 1 2 4
Fatalities 57 69 55 56 64 71 70 67 63 63
Serious injuries 37 61 53 65 50 45 36 44 49 22
Accidents in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 21 18 14 10 15 15 14 10 17 10
Fatal accidents 3 6 2 0 0 2 2 2 1 2
Fatalities 10 10 2 0 0 2 2 2 1 2
Serious injuries 3 15 1 2 5 3 1 1 4 0
Incidents (d) 865 796 807 874 887 789 815 677 636 685
Incidents in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 645 571 580 622 651 591 583 520 481 539
Incidents outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 89 79 78 69 78 66 83 55 49 39
Incidents in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 164 184 188 224 194 155 188 127 128 126
Incidents by type (d) 865 796 807 874 887 789 815 677 636 685
Risk of collision/Loss of separation 216 174 168 168 172 153 206 120 101 115
Declared emergency 264 222 260 298 314 312 310 275 260 291
Engine failure 134 139 130 129 120 107 87 95 90 83
Smoke/Fire 90 99 102 123 107 97 81 88 71 67
Collision 21 12 21 13 8 9 4 7 5 15
Other incident type 140 150 126 143 166 111 127 92 109 114

Data extracted January 24, 2014.

Accidents and reportable incidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Accidents by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each category, but only once in the total.

* "Number of aircraft involved in accidents" are aircraft counts, all other data are accident counts.

  1. The commercial service type is not available for foreign-registered aircraft.
  2. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e., flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).
  3. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.
  4. Reportable incidents include aeroplanes having a maximum certificated take-off weight (MCTOW) greater than 5700 kg, and rotorcraft having a MCTOW greater than 2250 kg.

Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada

Table 2. Occurrences involving Canadian-registered aircraft 2004-2013
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Accidents by aircraft and operator type (a) 252 259 262 284 252 249 244 230 239 242
Aeroplane accidents 203 203 202 234 197 210 209 192 193 203
Commercial 53 57 54 58 63 54 57 49 45 39
Airliner (705) 3 4 7 4 6 2 6 5 5 6
Commuter (704) 1 6 4 4 5 5 6 4 5 3
Air taxi (703) 41 33 30 39 41 36 28 26 20 18
Aerial work (702) 8 14 13 11 12 10 17 14 15 12
Other commercial type 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
State 2 1 4 1 3 2 3 2 2 2
Corporate 4 6 2 7 4 4 2 4 3 4
Private/Other operator type (b) 145 139 142 168 127 152 147 138 143 158
Helicopter accidents 40 49 56 45 42 32 29 35 40 27
Commercial 31 35 50 34 28 19 27 26 27 22
State 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 1
Corporate 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 1 1 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 8 13 6 7 14 12 2 8 10 4
Other aircraft type (c) 9 8 4 5 13 7 6 3 6 13
Fatal accidents by aircraft and operator type (a) 24 34 31 33 26 28 31 30 33 30
Aeroplane accidents 18 22 22 25 16 20 27 21 25 22
Commercial 3 9 6 7 3 5 12 10 6 7
Airliner (705) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Commuter (704) 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 1
Air taxi (703) 3 6 5 5 3 5 7 6 3 5
Aerial work (702) 0 2 1 1 0 0 4 2 2 1
Other commercial type 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
State 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Corporate 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1
Private/Other operator type (b) 15 13 15 17 11 15 15 11 19 14
Helicopter accidents 4 10 9 6 9 7 3 8 7 6
Other aircraft type (c) 2 2 0 2 1 1 1 1 1 3
Fatalities (a) 37 55 52 50 51 64 64 62 54 57
Serious injuries (a) 27 37 40 56 40 34 31 38 39 19
Incidents by type (d) 734 650 658 691 729 657 666 575 530 578
Risk of collision/Loss of separation 182 150 150 152 149 137 179 105 92 105
Declared emergency 204 152 184 186 235 236 238 224 200 231
Engine failure 118 116 106 108 98 94 67 87 77 70
Smoke/Fire 81 85 86 106 90 84 70 67 59 55
Collision 21 8 18 9 7 7 3 7 4 14
Other incident type 128 139 114 130 150 99 109 85 98 103
Accidents involving ultralight aircraft 36 31 28 30 29 34 30 17 36 23
Fatal accidents 6 5 1 5 12 4 3 3 8 4
Fatalities 10 6 1 6 13 5 4 3 8 4
Serious injuries 7 9 12 7 5 8 4 5 6 3

Data extracted January 24, 2014.

Accidents and reportable incidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Number of accidents by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each category, but only once in the total.

  1. Accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights.
  2. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e. flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).
  3. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.
  4. Reportable incidents include aeroplanes having a maximum certificated take-off weight (MCTOW) greater than 5700 kg, and rotorcraft having a MCTOW greater than 2250 kg.

Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada

Table 3a. Accident rates involving Canadian-registered aircraft (per hours flown, excluding ultralights and other aircraft types) 2004-2013
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Accidents 243 251 258 279 239 242 238 227 233 230
Fatal accidents 22 32 31 31 25 27 30 29 32 28
Fatalities 35 52 52 47 50 63 63 60 53 55
Hours flown (thousands) (a) 3,751 3,753 3,917 4,198 4,236 3,859 3,974 4,262 4,204 4,261
Accidents per 100,000 hours 6.5 6.7 6.6 6.6 5.6 6.3 6.0 5.3 5.5 5.4
Fatal accidents per 100,000 hours 0.6 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.7
Fatalities per 100,000 hours 0.9 1.4 1.3 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.3

Data extracted January 24, 2014.

Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.

  1. Source: Transport Canada (2012 and 2013 hours flown are estimated).

Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada

Table 3b. Aircraft accident rates in Canada (per movements, excluding ultralights and other aircraft types) 2004-2013
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Accidents 253 260 261 277 245 246 250 230 239 234
Fatal accidents 23 36 29 30 21 28 31 30 31 26
Fatalities 43 59 49 44 43 64 64 61 52 50
Aircraft movements (thousands) (a) 5,732 5,730 5,842 6,300 6,339 6,033 5,883 5,720 5,715 6,005
Accidents per 100,000 aircraft movements 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.4 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.0 4.2 3.9
Fatal accidents per 100,000 aircraft movements 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4
Fatalities per 100,000 aircraft movements 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.7 1.1 1.1 1.1 0.9 0.8

Data extracted January 24, 2014.

Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Excluding ultralights, balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.

  1. Source: Statistics Canada (CANSIM Tables 401-0008, 401-0015, 401-0021).

Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada

Table 4. Aircraft accident fatalities 2004-2013
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Fatalities 57 69 55 56 64 71 70 67 63 63
Fatalities in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 45 60 48 53 57 67 68 64 61 55
Fatalities outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 2 1 5 3 7 2 0 1 1 6
Fatalities in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 10 10 2 0 0 2 2 2 1 2
Fatalities by operator type 57 69 55 56 64 71 70 67 63 63
Commercial 25 26 28 19 25 36 36 38 17 28
Airliner (705) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 0 0
Commuter (704) 0 2 0 1 0 17 1 2 1 5
Air taxi (703) 18 17 18 10 20 18 28 16 12 19
Aerial work (702) 0 7 10 9 5 1 7 8 3 4
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
State 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Corporate 0 1 0 1 7 0 0 2 0 1
Private/Other operator type (b) 32 42 26 36 32 35 34 27 45 34
Crew fatalities by operator type 37 44 32 37 35 35 39 37 40 42
Commercial 11 15 12 12 8 10 17 18 10 20
Airliner (705) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0
Commuter (704) 0 2 0 0 0 2 1 2 0 2
Air taxi (703) 4 9 5 7 6 7 11 7 7 14
Aerial work (702) 0 4 7 6 2 1 5 5 2 4
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
State 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Corporate 0 1 0 1 2 0 0 2 0 1
Private/Other operator type (b) 26 28 19 24 25 25 22 17 29 21
Passenger fatalities by operator type 20 25 22 19 28 36 30 29 22 19
Commercial 14 11 15 7 16 26 18 20 6 8
Airliner (705) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0
Commuter (704) 0 0 0 1 0 15 0 0 1 3
Air taxi (703) 14 8 12 3 14 11 16 9 5 5
Aerial work (702) 0 3 3 3 2 0 2 3 0 0
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
State 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Corporate 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 6 14 7 12 7 10 12 9 16 11
Ground fatalities 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 2
Fatalities by aircraft type 57 69 55 56 64 71 70 67 63 63
Aeroplane 40 45 42 39 34 38 57 47 44 44
Helicopter 5 15 12 8 16 27 7 15 9 12
Ultralight 10 6 1 6 13 5 4 3 8 4
Other aircraft type (c) 2 3 0 3 1 1 2 2 2 7

Data extracted January 24, 2014.

Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Fatalities by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, a fatality is counted in each category, but only once in the total.

  1. The commercial service type is not available for foreign-registered aircraft.
  2. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e., flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).
  3. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.

Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada

Table 5. Aircraft accident serious injuries 2004-2013
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Serious injuries 37 61 53 65 50 45 36 44 49 22
Serious injuries in Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 34 45 51 61 45 41 35 34 40 22
Serious injuries outside Canada involving Canadian-registered aircraft 0 1 1 2 0 1 0 9 5 0
Serious injuries in Canada involving foreign-registered aircraft 3 15 1 2 5 3 1 1 4 0
Serious injuries by operator type 37 61 53 65 50 45 36 44 49 22
Commercial 14 24 20 30 24 11 16 26 20 11
Airliner (705) 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 10 1 0
Commuter (704) 0 0 0 1 2 1 4 2 2 2
Air taxi (703) 10 4 16 15 18 6 7 9 15 6
Aerial work (702) 2 7 2 14 3 3 4 5 1 3
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 2 12 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
State 0 1 2 3 0 2 1 0 0 0
Corporate 0 4 0 1 0 3 0 0 0 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 23 33 31 31 26 29 19 18 29 11
Crew serious injuries by operator type 26 37 28 30 25 26 22 18 25 13
Commercial 8 11 9 10 11 5 6 6 5 4
Airliner (705) 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Commuter (704) 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 2 0
Air taxi (703) 4 2 6 3 9 2 2 2 1 2
Aerial work (702) 2 6 2 6 2 3 3 4 1 2
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
State 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0
Corporate 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 18 23 18 19 14 18 15 12 20 9
Passenger serious injuries by operator type 9 22 23 32 25 19 13 25 23 8
Commercial 5 11 10 20 13 6 10 19 14 6
Airliner (705) 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 10 0 0
Commuter (704) 0 0 0 0 2 1 3 2 0 2
Air taxi (703) 5 1 9 12 9 4 5 7 14 4
Aerial work (702) 0 0 0 8 1 0 1 0 0 0
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 0 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
State 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 0 0 0
Corporate 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
Private/Other operator type (b) 4 10 12 9 12 11 3 6 9 2
Ground serious injuries 2 2 2 3 0 0 1 1 1 1
Serious injuries by aircraft type 37 61 53 65 50 45 36 44 49 22
Aeroplane 20 41 28 32 29 24 28 31 32 13
Helicopter 6 10 9 13 14 11 3 8 7 6
Ultralight 8 9 12 7 5 8 4 5 6 3
Other aircraft type (c) 3 2 4 13 2 2 1 0 4 0

Data extracted January 24, 2014.

Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Serious injuries by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, a serious injury is counted in each category, but only once in the total.

  1. The commercial service type is not available for foreign-registered aircraft.
  2. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e., flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).
  3. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.

Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada

Table 6. Accidents involving Canadian-registered aeroplanes and helicopters by operation type 2004-2013
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Aeroplane accidents by operation type 203 203 202 234 197 210 209 192 193 203
Training 25 16 33 33 30 43 28 28 27 24
Pleasure/Travel 118 116 96 118 83 109 108 102 109 126
Business 4 6 8 15 7 4 6 7 4 2
Forest fire management 3 2 4 0 1 3 2 1 2 3
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 7 5 6 8 4 0 6 4 4 4
Aerial application 3 6 8 8 9 4 10 4 4 7
Inspection 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1
Air transport 35 35 37 40 46 34 37 35 28 25
Air ambulance 2 1 3 2 3 5 2 1 1 0
Sightseeing 0 2 3 1 2 2 1 2 6 1
Other/Unknown 6 14 5 9 11 8 9 10 9 11
Aeroplane fatal accidents by operation type 18 22 22 25 16 20 27 21 25 22
Training 4 0 4 3 0 1 1 1 1 2
Pleasure/Travel 10 12 11 10 8 13 14 10 16 10
Business 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 1
Forest fire management 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 0 1 1 4 1 0 0 0 1 1
Aerial application 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 1
Inspection 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Air transport 3 7 5 4 3 4 7 8 4 5
Air ambulance 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
Sightseeing 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
Other/Unknown 1 2 1 0 1 0 2 1 3 2
Helicopter accidents by operation type 40 49 56 45 42 32 29 35 40 27
Training 4 3 2 3 6 5 0 2 1 1
Pleasure/Travel 5 11 4 4 9 5 2 9 8 2
Business 0 1 0 5 0 3 0 0 3 1
Forest fire management 4 1 3 0 0 4 1 2 1 3
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 2 0 2 3 0 0 1 1 0 1
Aerial application 1 2 0 2 1 0 3 1 4 0
Inspection 2 0 1 1 0 0 1 2 2 2
Air transport 15 19 29 16 22 10 15 13 9 8
Air ambulance 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 2
Sightseeing 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
Other/Unknown 7 11 15 12 3 4 6 5 10 7
Fatal helicopter accidents by operation type 4 10 9 6 9 7 3 8 7 6
Training 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0
Pleasure/Travel 1 5 0 0 3 2 0 2 0 0
Business 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0
Forest fire management 0 0 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
Test/Demonstration/Ferry 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
Aerial application 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Inspection 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
Air transport 2 3 2 3 4 3 2 1 1 3
Air ambulance 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Sightseeing 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Other/Unknown 0 1 4 2 2 0 0 1 3 1

Data extracted January 24, 2014.

Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Airplane accidents by operation type", when an occurrence involves a Business and an Inspection airplane, the occurrence is counted in each category, but only once in the total.

Canadian-registered aircraft, excluding ultralights, balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.

Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada

Table 7. Aircraft accidents by province/territory 2004-2013
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Accidents by province/territory 308 306 303 323 294 297 288 257 291 275
Newfoundland and Labrador 5 5 4 6 7 3 3 3 5 3
Prince Edward Island 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 5 0 2 4 6 3 7 5 5 5
New Brunswick 8 6 3 8 1 2 5 3 3 2
Quebec 55 64 56 72 58 68 65 58 71 66
Ontario 92 73 60 81 69 74 71 63 67 72
Manitoba 12 19 21 18 27 19 27 17 18 12
Saskatchewan 13 15 19 23 19 14 18 18 9 19
Alberta 33 34 44 32 33 31 25 22 35 29
British Columbia 60 70 64 46 44 59 47 43 54 51
Yukon 7 5 4 7 7 4 3 8 8 4
Northwest Territories 7 5 5 8 8 6 9 6 5 2
Nunavut 2 2 8 5 8 2 7 4 3 5
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Outside Canada 9 7 11 13 7 11 1 7 8 4
Fatal accidents by province/territory 33 44 34 38 38 34 36 35 42 36
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 2 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1
New Brunswick 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Quebec 6 10 4 6 5 10 9 5 10 5
Ontario 6 7 4 6 7 6 9 6 10 8
Manitoba 2 2 0 3 1 0 1 1 3 2
Saskatchewan 2 1 4 5 0 2 0 3 1 2
Alberta 2 5 6 3 8 1 2 4 6 4
British Columbia 8 16 9 10 10 8 7 10 9 9
Yukon 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0
Northwest Territories 1 0 1 1 2 1 3 2 0 0
Nunavut 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Outside Canada 2 1 4 1 4 2 0 1 1 3
Fatalities by province/territory 57 69 55 56 64 71 70 67 63 63
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 2 0 1 0 18 2 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 8 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 0 1
New Brunswick 0 1 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Quebec 7 14 7 7 7 16 26 9 11 6
Ontario 22 11 6 7 8 12 14 9 19 18
Manitoba 2 2 0 5 1 0 1 1 4 5
Saskatchewan 2 2 4 6 0 4 0 8 5 3
Alberta 2 8 9 5 12 1 4 5 6 5
British Columbia 8 28 16 17 26 14 15 16 15 15
Yukon 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0
Northwest Territories 2 0 6 3 2 2 3 4 0 0
Nunavut 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 12 1 1
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
Outside Canada 2 1 5 3 7 2 0 1 1 6

Data extracted January 24, 2014.

Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada

Table 8. Accidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft by province/territory (excluding ultralights) 2004-2013
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Accidents by province/territory 252 259 262 284 252 249 244 230 239 242
Newfoundland and Labrador 5 5 3 5 5 3 3 3 5 3
Prince Edward Island 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 3 0 0 3 2 1 7 3 3 5
New Brunswick 5 5 2 7 1 2 4 3 3 2
Quebec 44 56 48 61 50 60 52 52 52 57
Ontario 71 57 52 71 62 61 55 56 54 59
Manitoba 12 18 17 17 24 19 25 16 15 12
Saskatchewan 13 13 18 21 18 12 18 17 8 18
Alberta 29 28 41 31 28 28 24 18 30 27
British Columbia 46 59 53 36 33 44 38 39 46 44
Yukon 6 3 4 6 7 2 3 7 7 4
Northwest Territories 7 5 5 8 8 5 8 6 5 2
Nunavut 2 2 8 5 7 1 6 3 3 4
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Outside Canada 9 7 11 13 7 10 1 7 8 4
Fatal accidents by province/territory 24 34 31 33 26 28 31 30 33 30
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
New Brunswick 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Quebec 4 9 3 4 4 8 8 5 4 3
Ontario 2 6 4 6 4 5 8 4 9 5
Manitoba 2 2 0 3 1 0 1 1 3 2
Saskatchewan 2 0 3 4 0 1 0 3 1 2
Alberta 2 2 6 3 4 1 2 3 5 4
British Columbia 6 12 9 9 6 8 5 9 8 8
Yukon 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0
Northwest Territories 1 0 1 1 2 1 2 2 0 0
Nunavut 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Outside Canada 2 1 4 1 4 1 0 1 1 3
Fatalities by province/territory 37 55 52 50 51 64 64 62 54 57
Newfoundland and Labrador 1 2 0 1 0 18 2 0 0 0
Prince Edward Island 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Nova Scotia 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 1
New Brunswick 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0
Quebec 4 12 6 5 6 14 25 9 5 4
Ontario 14 10 6 7 4 11 12 7 18 15
Manitoba 2 2 0 5 1 0 1 1 4 5
Saskatchewan 2 0 3 5 0 2 0 8 5 3
Alberta 2 4 9 5 8 1 4 4 5 5
British Columbia 6 23 16 15 22 14 13 15 14 14
Yukon 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0
Northwest Territories 2 0 6 3 2 2 2 4 0 0
Nunavut 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 12 1 1
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
Outside Canada 2 1 5 3 7 1 0 1 1 6

Data extracted January 24, 2014.

Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada

Table 9. Reportable aircraft incidents 2004-2013
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Incidents by type 865 796 807 874 887 789 815 677 636 685
Risk of collision/Loss of separation 216 174 168 168 172 153 206 120 101 115
Declared emergency 264 222 260 298 314 312 310 275 260 291
Engine failure 134 139 130 129 120 107 87 95 90 83
Smoke/Fire 90 99 102 123 107 97 81 88 71 67
Collision 21 12 21 13 8 9 4 7 5 15
Control difficulties 43 44 41 41 39 24 32 31 33 24
Crew unable to perform duties 55 67 57 65 78 59 50 26 40 58
Dangerous goods-related 0 1 2 3 1 3 1 0 1 3
Depressurization 9 14 9 13 17 6 11 16 15 14
Fuel shortage 13 10 6 8 7 4 9 6 7 2
Failure to remain in landing area 11 11 7 9 18 9 14 11 10 9
Incorrect fuel 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Slung load released 5 1 3 3 5 3 9 1 1 4
Transmission or gearbox failure 2 1 0 1 0 3 1 1 2 0
Incidents by operator type 865 796 807 874 887 789 815 677 636 685
Commercial 819 732 773 823 857 750 776 637 598 652
Airliner (705) 578 488 528 563 590 498 520 447 409 449
Commuter (704) 91 89 80 75 94 88 85 75 78 90
Air taxi (703) 37 39 52 25 36 43 31 29 26 35
Aerial work (702) 38 22 20 20 24 31 26 15 11 12
Foreign/Other commercial type (a) 144 151 165 196 181 138 170 111 110 111
State 29 28 21 29 17 24 26 14 21 20
Corporate 34 45 30 43 21 29 20 22 20 20
Private/Other operator type (b) 37 40 31 24 33 26 31 25 21 19
Incidents by aircraft type 865 796 807 874 887 789 815 677 636 685
Aeroplane 845 779 787 854 870 771 790 659 624 669
Helicopter 28 20 29 22 19 21 33 20 17 20
Ultralight/Other aircraft type (c) 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 0 0 0
Number of aircraft involved in incidents * 1038 956 974 1031 1052 915 979 779 733 796
Aeroplanes 1008 935 942 1009 1032 892 944 759 716 776
Helicopters 30 20 30 22 19 22 33 20 17 20
Ultralight/Other aircraft type (c) 0 1 2 0 1 1 2 0 0 0
Incidents by province/territory 865 796 807 874 887 789 815 677 636 685
Newfoundland and Labrador 19 25 24 19 21 16 30 14 17 29
Prince Edward Island 2 1 2 1 2 2 0 1 0 2
Nova Scotia 23 14 17 26 20 18 25 19 17 11
New Brunswick 10 11 14 17 12 5 10 7 7 7
Quebec 85 123 101 127 127 97 109 126 107 122
Ontario 248 220 244 264 273 195 176 178 155 166
Manitoba 53 39 43 52 59 46 51 31 31 31
Saskatchewan 22 14 20 19 28 18 19 11 18 27
Alberta 118 108 111 79 89 106 84 82 81 102
British Columbia 142 93 83 133 120 162 156 76 101 99
Yukon 4 3 5 4 4 6 4 3 4 5
Northwest Territories 28 27 25 27 27 14 21 30 17 16
Nunavut 12 16 10 14 17 8 21 19 19 10
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 10 23 30 23 10 30 26 25 13 19
Outside Canada 89 79 78 69 78 66 83 55 49 39

Data extracted January 24, 2014.

Reportable incidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Reportable incidents include aeroplanes having a maximum certificated take-off weight (MCTOW) greater than 5700 kg, and rotorcraft having a MCTOW greater than 2250 kg.

Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Incidents by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each category, but only once in the total.

* "Number of aircraft involved in incidents" are aircraft counts, all other data are incident counts.

  1. The commercial service type is not available for foreign-registered aircraft.
  2. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e., flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).
  3. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.

Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada

Table 10. Reportable incidents involving Canadian-registered aircraft 2004-2013
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Incidents by type 734 650 658 691 729 657 666 575 530 578
Risk of collision/Loss of separation 182 150 150 152 149 137 179 105 92 105
Declared emergency 204 152 184 186 235 236 238 224 200 231
Engine failure 118 116 106 108 98 94 67 87 77 70
Smoke/Fire 81 85 86 106 90 84 70 67 59 55
Collision 21 8 18 9 7 7 3 7 4 14
Control difficulties 41 41 31 38 32 18 24 27 31 21
Crew unable to perform duties 51 67 56 63 76 57 49 26 38 56
Dangerous goods-related 0 1 2 3 1 3 1 0 1 3
Depressurization 7 12 9 11 15 3 10 15 13 10
Fuel shortage 10 5 6 4 4 4 6 5 4 2
Failure to remain in landing area 10 10 6 7 16 8 9 10 9 7
Incorrect fuel 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
Slung load released 5 1 3 3 5 3 9 1 1 4
Transmission or gearbox failure 2 1 0 1 0 3 1 1 1 0
Incidents by operator type 734 650 658 691 729 657 666 575 530 578
Commercial 700 604 635 660 704 626 636 546 501 551
Airliner (705) 578 487 524 563 586 494 519 445 409 448
Commuter (704) 91 89 79 75 94 88 85 75 78 90
Air taxi (703) 37 39 52 25 36 43 30 29 25 35
Aerial work (702) 38 22 20 17 24 30 26 15 11 12
Other commercial type (a) 25 24 31 36 32 19 31 22 14 11
State 27 25 20 28 16 21 22 14 18 19
Corporate 26 29 21 23 17 21 17 13 15 15
Private/Other operator type (b) 31 34 27 22 31 25 28 21 18 18
Incidents by aircraft type 734 650 658 691 729 657 666 575 530 578
Aeroplane 715 633 638 673 712 639 642 557 519 562
Helicopter 27 20 29 20 19 21 32 20 16 20
Ultralight/Other aircraft type (c) 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0
Number of aircraft involved in incidents * 886 785 803 833 874 773 812 668 619 680
Aeroplanes 857 764 771 813 854 750 779 648 603 660
Helicopters 29 20 30 20 19 22 32 20 16 20
Ultralight/Other aircraft type (c) 0 1 2 0 1 1 1 0 0 0
Incidents by province/territory 734 650 658 691 729 657 666 575 530 578
Newfoundland and Labrador 10 14 13 10 13 7 13 10 10 17
Prince Edward Island 1 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 1
Nova Scotia 18 7 12 17 12 13 19 14 9 9
New Brunswick 10 7 9 12 7 3 8 5 7 4
Quebec 66 98 79 90 96 77 90 104 84 96
Ontario 211 175 198 202 222 168 141 148 127 142
Manitoba 43 31 35 43 49 40 45 30 30 27
Saskatchewan 19 11 19 16 26 16 15 11 14 26
Alberta 105 95 99 67 76 92 74 76 75 92
British Columbia 122 85 72 120 103 141 134 68 87 93
Yukon 2 2 3 4 2 6 3 3 3 3
Northwest Territories 27 25 21 27 27 14 19 30 17 16
Nunavut 9 14 10 9 14 7 17 16 15 10
Other air space under Canadian air traffic control 2 7 8 5 3 6 5 5 3 3
Outside Canada 89 79 78 69 78 66 83 55 49 39

Data extracted January 24, 2014.

Reportable incidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Reportable incidents include aeroplanes having a maximum certificated take-off weight (MCTOW) greater than 5700 kg, and rotorcraft having a MCTOW greater than 2250 kg.

Breakdowns may not add up to totals. For example, in the total "Incidents by aircraft type", when an occurrence involves an airplane and a helicopter, the occurrence is counted in each category, but only once in the total.

* "Number of aircraft involved in incidents" are aircraft counts, all other data are incident counts.

  1. The commercial service type is not available for foreign-registered aircraft.
  2. Other operator type contains, but is not limited to, organizations that rent aircraft (i.e., flying schools, flying clubs, etc.).
  3. Includes balloons, gyroplanes, gliders, dirigibles, hang gliders and similar aircraft types.

Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada

Table 11. Number of accidents involving aeroplanes by phase of flight and selected event category 2004-2013
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Total
Standing/Taxiing 16 21 20 16 13 20 17 18 17 22 180
Collision with object 5 8 8 6 6 9 6 6 7 8 69
Collision with moving aircraft 1 1 4 2 4 3 1 1 2 1 20
Nosedown/Overturned 4 2 1 0 1 1 4 3 3 5 24
Landing gear collapsed/retracted 1 2 1 1 0 4 2 3 0 2 16
Loss of control 2 0 2 1 0 1 3 0 3 4 16
Other events 8 14 11 10 6 9 8 10 9 12 97
Take-off 57 50 48 51 40 49 54 41 55 40 485
Collision with terrain 11 22 18 10 10 14 15 11 22 11 144
Loss of control 16 18 14 12 7 15 15 12 17 7 133
Collision with object 16 11 18 17 14 16 14 10 17 8 141
Take-off/Landing event 21 10 10 16 5 13 13 13 19 9 129
Power loss 11 12 9 14 14 12 14 11 6 13 116
Other events 43 25 19 26 20 22 27 22 23 20 247
En route 25 34 41 29 34 40 31 31 32 34 331
Power loss 11 14 18 11 18 25 13 14 15 15 154
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 6 8 6 6 14 9 11 13 9 8 90
Collision with terrain 6 8 16 6 5 9 8 8 8 10 84
Component/System related 4 7 5 9 4 8 6 5 6 5 59
Other events 13 14 21 15 13 18 18 15 13 17 157
Manoeuvering 9 17 11 12 12 3 11 12 10 12 109
Collision with terrain 2 10 4 8 3 2 5 6 7 7 54
Loss of control 4 3 1 5 3 1 3 1 4 1 26
Collision with object 3 2 4 2 4 0 7 2 1 2 27
Power loss 0 5 0 0 4 1 1 3 0 0 14
Other events 5 6 5 4 6 1 3 8 3 5 46
Approach 32 31 25 28 29 31 28 23 18 31 276
Collision with terrain 9 14 5 5 8 12 11 7 6 6 83
Power loss 5 9 9 6 8 7 7 2 0 11 64
Collision with object 4 5 4 9 8 3 6 8 1 8 56
Component/System related 8 5 3 6 6 9 2 5 3 3 50
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 7 4 5 1 6 4 5 3 2 7 44
Loss of control 7 3 4 3 5 3 6 3 4 4 42
Other events 11 16 6 13 4 14 9 7 11 8 99
Landing 133 105 116 149 114 122 112 114 111 116 1192
Missed or went off runway 35 37 27 39 21 29 29 31 33 32 313
Collision with object 24 23 30 32 21 23 25 28 26 18 250
Landing gear collapsed/retracted 23 7 16 30 28 18 26 24 22 25 219
Nosedown/Overturned 30 17 21 26 25 22 18 18 20 20 217
Loss of control 29 18 14 25 16 23 20 17 27 19 208
Hard landing 18 11 20 35 16 19 23 22 20 13 197
Collision with terrain 29 20 10 21 19 16 18 16 17 12 178
Wheels-up landing 14 6 5 12 8 12 7 3 7 10 84
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 5 5 8 6 5 11 5 3 9 11 68
Other events 33 40 45 39 32 34 40 44 33 39 379
Post-impact 18 20 12 13 13 13 20 10 17 13 149
Fire/Explosion/Fumes 8 13 7 8 9 8 15 6 6 7 87
Other events 11 7 5 6 5 6 5 4 11 6 66

Data extracted January 24, 2014.

Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Breakdowns do not add up to totals. For example, in the "Take-off" phase, if an occurrence involves both "Control loss" and "Power loss" events, the occurrence is counted in each event category, but only once in the phase total.

Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada

Table 12. Number of accidents involving helicopters by phase of flight and selected event category 2004-2013
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Total
Standing/Taxiing 8 9 6 4 3 3 0 6 4 1 44
Collision with terrain 1 1 2 1 0 1 0 2 1 0 9
Loss of control 0 1 2 1 1 0 0 2 0 0 7
Collision with object 0 1 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 6
Other events 7 8 5 2 2 3 0 5 4 1 37
Take-off 7 10 11 7 7 4 2 7 6 7 68
Loss of control 3 4 7 4 4 1 1 4 1 0 29
Collision with terrain 3 3 6 2 3 2 2 3 0 2 26
Collision with object 1 2 2 1 0 1 1 0 4 2 14
Power loss 0 1 2 0 1 1 0 2 0 0 7
Other events 5 5 5 4 6 1 1 1 1 4 33
En route 7 8 12 12 11 11 7 10 9 5 92
Collision with terrain 2 4 5 6 6 3 3 3 2 1 35
Power loss 3 2 6 4 4 5 3 2 3 1 33
Precautionary/Forced landing/Ditching 2 3 3 3 2 1 1 2 3 1 21
Component/System related 2 3 2 0 2 1 1 3 2 1 17
Other events 5 4 3 5 8 5 3 5 4 4 46
Manoeuvering 13 11 14 13 9 7 9 10 12 7 105
Collision with terrain 8 7 5 5 4 3 3 6 6 5 52
Loss of control 3 5 0 7 2 3 2 2 2 2 28
Collision with object 4 0 7 1 2 2 4 2 3 2 27
Operations related event 4 1 4 4 1 1 1 2 1 1 20
Power loss 3 1 0 2 2 2 2 0 2 0 14
Other events 5 4 8 7 5 5 4 3 5 2 48
Approach 2 6 2 4 3 5 4 6 7 3 42
Collision with terrain 2 2 1 1 2 3 4 1 1 0 17
Power loss 0 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 7
Loss of control 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 6
Collision with object 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 3
Other events 1 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 5 3 25
Landing 15 19 21 16 17 15 15 7 13 12 150
Hard landing 3 2 9 5 6 2 4 4 4 1 40
Collision with terrain 0 5 3 1 5 5 4 2 4 0 29
Loss of control 6 5 4 2 6 2 1 1 1 2 30
Collision with object 3 4 5 4 3 4 4 0 2 5 34
Other events 8 8 7 9 4 9 7 2 5 9 68
Post-impact 4 9 4 4 3 4 4 4 2 4 42
Fire/Explosion/Fumes 2 7 3 3 2 3 1 2 1 2 26
Other events 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 2 16

Data extracted January 24, 2014.

Accidents are reported in accordance with the TSB's regulations for mandatory reporting of occurrences.

Breakdowns do not add up to totals. For example, in the "Take-off" phase, if an occurrence involves both "Control loss" and "Power loss" events, the occurrence is counted in each event category, but only once in the phase total.

Source: Transportation Safety Board of Canada

Appendix B: Definitions

The following definitions apply to aviation occurrences that are required to be reported pursuant to the Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board Act and the associated regulations.

Aviation Occurrence

  1. Any accident or incident associated with the operation of an aircraft; and
  2. Any situation or condition that the Board has reasonable grounds to believe could, if left unattended, induce an accident or incident described in a) above.

Reportable Aviation Accident

An accident resulting directly from the operation of an aircraft where

  1. a person sustains a serious injury or is killed as a result of
    1. being on board the aircraft;
    2. coming into contact with any part of the aircraft or its contents; or
    3. being directly exposed to the jet blast or rotor downwash of the aircraft;
  2. the aircraft sustains damage that adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft and that requires major repair or replacement of any affected component part; or
  3. the aircraft is missing or inaccessible.

Reportable Aviation Incident

An incident resulting directly from the operation of an aeroplane having a maximum certificated take-off weight (MCTOW) greater than 5700 kg, or from the operation of a rotorcraft having a MCTOW greater than 2250 kg, where

  1. an engine fails or is shut down as a precautionary measure;
  2. a transmission gearbox malfunction occurs;
  3. smoke or fire occurs;
  4. difficulties in controlling the aircraft are encountered owing to any aircraft system malfunction, weather phenomena, wake turbulence, uncontrolled vibrations or operations outside the flight envelope;
  5. the aircraft fails to remain within the intended landing or take-off area, lands with all or part of the landing gear retracted, or drags a wing tip, an engine pod, or any other part of the aircraft;
  6. any crew member whose duties are directly related to the safe operation of the aircraft is unable to perform the crew member’s duties as a result of physical incapacitation that poses a threat to the safety of any person, property, or the environment;
  7. depressurization occurs that necessitates an emergency descent;
  8. a fuel shortage occurs that necessitates a diversion or requires approach and landing priority at the destination of the aircraft;
  9. the aircraft is refuelled with the incorrect type of fuel or contaminated fuel;
  10. a collision, risk of collision, or loss of separation occurs;
  11. a crew member declares an emergency or indicates any degree of emergency that requires priority handling by an air traffic control unit or the standing by of emergency response services;
  12. a slung load is released unintentionally or as a precautionary or emergency measure from the aircraft; or
  13. any dangerous goods are released in or from the aircraft.

Serious Injury

An injury that is sustained by a person in an accident and that

  1. requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours, commencing within seven days of the date the injury was received; or
  2. results in a fracture of any bone (except simple fractures of fingers, toes or nose); or
  3. involves lacerations that cause severe haemorrhage or nerve, muscle or tendon damage; or
  4. involves injury to any internal organ; or
  5. involves second- or third-degree burns, or any burns affecting more than 5% of the body surface; or
  6. involves verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation.

ATS-Related Event

Any event related to the provision of air traffic control services including, but not limited to, failure or inability to provide service, emergency handling, or loss of in-flight separation.

Air Proximity Event

A situation in which, in the opinion of a pilot or air traffic services personnel, the distance between aircraft as well as their positions and speed have been such that the safety of the aircraft involved may have been compromised.

Commercial Operators

Commercial operators include carriers that offer a “for-hire” service to transport people or goods, or to undertake specific tasks such as aerial photography, flight training, or crop spraying.

Airliner

An aeroplane used by a Canadian air operator in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, that has a MCTOW of more than 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or for which a Canadian type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of 20 or more passengers.

Commuter Aircraft

  1. a multi-engined aircraft that has a MCTOW of 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or less and a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of 10 to 19 inclusive;
  2. a turbo-jet-powered aeroplane that has a maximum zero fuel weight of 22 680 kg (50 000 pounds) or less and for which a Canadian type certificate has been issued authorizing the transport of not more than 19 passengers.

An aeroplane used by a Canadian air operator, in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, in which the aircraft is:

Aerial Work Aircraft

A commercially operated aeroplane or helicopter used in aerial work involving

  1. the carriage on board of persons other than flight crew members;
  2. the carriage of helicopter external loads;
  3. the towing of objects; or
  4. the dispersal of products.

Air Taxi Aircraft

A commercially operated aircraft used in an air transport service or in aerial work involving sightseeing operations, in which the aircraft is:

  1. a single-engined aircraft;
  2. a multi-engined aircraft, other than a turbo-jet-powered aeroplane, that has a MCTOW of 8618 kg (19 000 pounds) or less and a seating configuration, excluding pilot seats, of nine or less; or
  3. any aircraft that is authorized by the Minister of Transport to be operated under Part VII, Subpart 3, Division 1 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs).

State Operators

State operators include the federal and provincial governments.

Corporate Operators

Corporate operators include companies flying for business reasons.

Private Operators

Private operators include individuals flying for pleasure. Included are flights on which it is not possible to transport people or cargo on a “for-hire” basis.

Footnotes

Footnote 1

Ultra-light accidents will be presented separately in all subsequent discussion of occurrences involving Canadian-registered aircraft.

Return to footnote 1 referrer

Footnote 2

It is agreed by convention that, for a result to be considered statistically significant, its probability must be lower than 1 in 20 (that is, p<.05).

Return to footnote 2 referrer

Footnote 3

As some occurrences involve more than one aircraft, readers are cautioned to note differences between the number of occurrences and the number of aircraft involved in occurrences. All tables except Table 1 exclude ultra-light aircraft; all tables except Tables 1 and 4 also exclude balloons, gliders and gyrocopters.

Return to footnote 3 referrer

Footnote 4

Manoeuvering (i.e., low altitude/aerobatic flight operations) does not occur on all flights.

Return to footnote 4 referrer

Footnote 5

Manoeuvering (i.e., low altitude/aerobatic flight operations) does not occur on all flights.

Return to footnote 5 referrer